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Santos E.J.,Federal University of Parana | Conte C.E.,Federal University of Parana | Conte C.E.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2014

In spite of harboring high richness of anuran amphibians, Brazil still has many regions considered to be undersampled, including ecosystems which are degraded and threatened. This is the case of the Mixed Ombrophile Forest (FOM), a formation which has only 3% of its original vegetation, and an even smaller percentage of it constitutes forests in primary or advanced stages. The objective of the present study was to determine the structure of an assemblage of anurans in a remnant of the Mixed Ombrophile Forest, comparing that assemblage with 8 other assemblages known to occur in localities in the Mixed Ombrophile Forest formation, and to verify if the richness of each local varies according to the quantity or types of sites sampled in each inventory. A total of twelve campaigns were carried out from September 2008 to August 2009 to sample 11sites, totaling 72 sampling hours. Through the methods of sampling at breeding sites in seven sites and aural search in four transects, the occurrence of 24 species from seven families was registered, corresponding to 96% of the estimated richness in the area (n=25). Both richness and specific abundance were registered in the wettest period. The number of species in the sites varied from one to 15, and almost half (41%) of them were exclusive of forest environment. The most important variable for the register of a higher number of species in the present study and other areas inside FOM was the quantity of types of sampled sites, and not the area size and total number of habitats, indicating that sampling in heterogeneous environments, which may harbor more reproductive modes for anurans, enhance local richness registers. Despite being a small and altered fragment, the observed richness was high if compared to other areas whose anurofauna was inventoried inside the araucaria forest domain, with a similar sampling effort. Due to occurrence of many species dependent on the integrity of the forest, the minimization of anthropic activities and more detailed studies must be the main goals for their maintenance and local conservation. © 2014 Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul. All rights reserved. Source

Norris D.,Claro | Rocha-Mendes F.,Claro | Rocha-Mendes F.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao | Marques R.,Claro | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

The continued degradation of forest habitats and isolation of fragmented populations means that the conservation of endemic marmosets in the Brazilian Atlantic forest depends on human interventions including legal protection. Population monitoring is required to ensure effective management and appropriate allocation of conservation resources; however, deriving estimates of population metrics such as density within heterogeneous environments is challenging. We aimed to quantify the population density and spatial distribution of buffy-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix aurita) in the northern region of Serra-do-Mar State Park. We incorporated habitat suitability as quantified by a niche modeling algorithm (MAXENT) to refine density estimates obtained via distance methods. We used 6 environmental predictors to model the distribution of Callithrix aurita and used the resulting MAXENT niche model to identify environmental conditions that represent suitable habitat for this species. We used 877.7 km of line transect surveys and distance methods to derive estimates of 2.19 groups or 7.55 individuals/km2 from direct observations (n = 40), providing an overall population estimate of 1892 (95% CI = 1155-3068) individuals in 250.7 km2 of Atlantic forest. Our refined density estimate, obtained by combining distance methods and a niche model, yielded a result of 1386 individuals. Suitable habitat was not uniformly distributed across the study area and was most strongly associated with altitude and the type of vegetation cover. We provide a review of previous surveys and find this is the largest known population of Callithrix aurita. Our refinement of density estimates provides a simple and informative addition to the primatologist's toolbox. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Rocha-Mendes F.,Sao Paulo State University | Rocha-Mendes F.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao | Quadros J.,University of Tuiuti do Parana | Pedro W.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2010

The diet of some sympatric carnivore species in three Atlantic Forest remnants of Southern Brazil was studied in order to assess their food niche. We conducted monthly field trips between February 2003 and January 2004 to collect fecal samples that were subsequently examined together with others collected sporadically between November 1994 and January 2003. Of the 416 samples analysed, 198 had the "author" species identified through microscopic analysis guard hairs, which revealed the presence of 10 carnivores and some information about their diet. Puma yagouaroundi had the largest dietary niche breadth, whereas Leopardus tigrinus and Nasua nasua showed the lowest values. Extensive niche overlap was observed between L. tigrinus and N. nasua, L. tigrinus and L. wiedii, and between L. tigrinus and L. pardalis. Data presented here not only increases the understanding of carnivore feeding ecology, but also contributes towards their conservation in the study region and other fragmented landscapes in Brazil and neighboring countries. Source

Nazaretti E.M.,Federal University of Parana | Conte C.E.,Federal University of Parana | Conte C.E.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2015

With the evidence of decline in amphibian populations caused by habitat changes, Brazilian hotspots need to be studied in order to increase knowledge about the group and provide better prospects for conservation. The Mesophytic Semideciduous Forest (MSF) is one of the most critically endangered ecosystems, whose extent was reduced to about 7% of the original cover, scattered in small fragments. This study aims to describe the anurofauna of a site in MSF landscape in Paranapanema River Basin, considered a geographical gap in knowledge of amphibians. In addition, we evaluated the efficiency of anuran sampling methods and verified the similarity with assemblages of the same basin. The study was conducted on the banks of the Paranapanema River, the border between São Paulo and Paraná states. We conducted nine quarterly samplings from November 2005 to November 2007, resulting in an effort of 45 sampling days. We recorded 25 amphibian species of six families. The sampling sites of reproduction method recorded the highest number of species (88.5%), and pitfall traps were also an efficient method, providing a record of about 45% of the species. By this method we recorded Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863) and Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824), 90% of terrestrial species recorded that are typically categorized as open area species. Comparing with other Paranapanema basin assemblages, we observed a segregation of species even in areas closer, and the similarity between locations of the studies was not determined by geographic distance. Distinguishing features of the recorded species, such as reproductive mode and association to different habitats, together with degree of diversity found among assemblages, highlights the importance of preserving this region for the amphibian conservation. © 2015, Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul. All rights reserved. Source

Parolin L.C.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia | Parolin L.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Parolin L.C.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | Mikich S.B.,Laboratorio Of Ecologia | And 2 more authors.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2015

Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts) of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A. lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species. © 2015 Academia Brasileira de Ciencias. All rights reserved. Source

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