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Conte C.E.,Federal University of Paraná | Conte C.E.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao | da Silva D.R.,Federal University of Uberlandia | Rodrigues A.P.,Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renovaveis IBAMA
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2013

The suppression of natural landscapes has decimated populations and/or reduced the area of occurrence of many anuran amphibian species. This is the scenario of Cerrado, given its great economic potential and the decay speed through human activities. For this reason, species inventories are extremely needed in such regions, where the dispersion activity and reproduction might be beset depending on the degree of environmental alteration. This study aims to determine the richness and the diversity of reproductive modes of the anurofauna from the Tijuco River basin and to compare the composition of the assemblage from such region with assemblages of amphibians previously studied from other regions within the biomes Cerrado and Mesophytic Semideciduous Forest. The study was carried out along the Tijuco River basin in and approximate extension of 80 km. We conduct four sampling methods where 40 species of anurans belonging to six families were registered. This corresponds to 20% of the species of anurans known to Cerrado. The landscape conditions favor species more tolerant and adapted to dry weather, which reflects an assemblage with lower proportions of reproductive modes and higher occurrence of generalized modes, dependent of water or adapted against desiccation. The comparison with 15 different localities revealed that the anurofauna from Cerrado is unique, with low taxonomic similarity to the adjacent ecosystems. The diversity of habitats and the expressive richness of species make the Tijuco River basin very important for the conservation of the anurofauna from the biome Cerrado.

Rocha-Mendes F.,São Paulo State University | Rocha-Mendes F.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao | Quadros J.,University of Tuiuti do Paraná | Pedro W.A.,São Paulo State University
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2010

The diet of some sympatric carnivore species in three Atlantic Forest remnants of Southern Brazil was studied in order to assess their food niche. We conducted monthly field trips between February 2003 and January 2004 to collect fecal samples that were subsequently examined together with others collected sporadically between November 1994 and January 2003. Of the 416 samples analysed, 198 had the "author" species identified through microscopic analysis guard hairs, which revealed the presence of 10 carnivores and some information about their diet. Puma yagouaroundi had the largest dietary niche breadth, whereas Leopardus tigrinus and Nasua nasua showed the lowest values. Extensive niche overlap was observed between L. tigrinus and N. nasua, L. tigrinus and L. wiedii, and between L. tigrinus and L. pardalis. Data presented here not only increases the understanding of carnivore feeding ecology, but also contributes towards their conservation in the study region and other fragmented landscapes in Brazil and neighboring countries.

Santos E.J.,Federal University of Paraná | Conte C.E.,Federal University of Paraná | Conte C.E.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2014

In spite of harboring high richness of anuran amphibians, Brazil still has many regions considered to be undersampled, including ecosystems which are degraded and threatened. This is the case of the Mixed Ombrophile Forest (FOM), a formation which has only 3% of its original vegetation, and an even smaller percentage of it constitutes forests in primary or advanced stages. The objective of the present study was to determine the structure of an assemblage of anurans in a remnant of the Mixed Ombrophile Forest, comparing that assemblage with 8 other assemblages known to occur in localities in the Mixed Ombrophile Forest formation, and to verify if the richness of each local varies according to the quantity or types of sites sampled in each inventory. A total of twelve campaigns were carried out from September 2008 to August 2009 to sample 11sites, totaling 72 sampling hours. Through the methods of sampling at breeding sites in seven sites and aural search in four transects, the occurrence of 24 species from seven families was registered, corresponding to 96% of the estimated richness in the area (n=25). Both richness and specific abundance were registered in the wettest period. The number of species in the sites varied from one to 15, and almost half (41%) of them were exclusive of forest environment. The most important variable for the register of a higher number of species in the present study and other areas inside FOM was the quantity of types of sampled sites, and not the area size and total number of habitats, indicating that sampling in heterogeneous environments, which may harbor more reproductive modes for anurans, enhance local richness registers. Despite being a small and altered fragment, the observed richness was high if compared to other areas whose anurofauna was inventoried inside the araucaria forest domain, with a similar sampling effort. Due to occurrence of many species dependent on the integrity of the forest, the minimization of anthropic activities and more detailed studies must be the main goals for their maintenance and local conservation. © 2014 Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul. All rights reserved.

Nazaretti E.M.,Federal University of Paraná | Conte C.E.,Federal University of Paraná | Conte C.E.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao
Iheringia - Serie Zoologia | Year: 2015

With the evidence of decline in amphibian populations caused by habitat changes, Brazilian hotspots need to be studied in order to increase knowledge about the group and provide better prospects for conservation. The Mesophytic Semideciduous Forest (MSF) is one of the most critically endangered ecosystems, whose extent was reduced to about 7% of the original cover, scattered in small fragments. This study aims to describe the anurofauna of a site in MSF landscape in Paranapanema River Basin, considered a geographical gap in knowledge of amphibians. In addition, we evaluated the efficiency of anuran sampling methods and verified the similarity with assemblages of the same basin. The study was conducted on the banks of the Paranapanema River, the border between São Paulo and Paraná states. We conducted nine quarterly samplings from November 2005 to November 2007, resulting in an effort of 45 sampling days. We recorded 25 amphibian species of six families. The sampling sites of reproduction method recorded the highest number of species (88.5%), and pitfall traps were also an efficient method, providing a record of about 45% of the species. By this method we recorded Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863) and Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824), 90% of terrestrial species recorded that are typically categorized as open area species. Comparing with other Paranapanema basin assemblages, we observed a segregation of species even in areas closer, and the similarity between locations of the studies was not determined by geographic distance. Distinguishing features of the recorded species, such as reproductive mode and association to different habitats, together with degree of diversity found among assemblages, highlights the importance of preserving this region for the amphibian conservation. © 2015, Fundacao Zoobotanica do Rio Grande do Sul. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Embrapa Florestas and Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias | Year: 2015

Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts) of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species.

Norris D.,Claro | Rocha-Mendes F.,Claro | Rocha-Mendes F.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao | Marques R.,Claro | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

The continued degradation of forest habitats and isolation of fragmented populations means that the conservation of endemic marmosets in the Brazilian Atlantic forest depends on human interventions including legal protection. Population monitoring is required to ensure effective management and appropriate allocation of conservation resources; however, deriving estimates of population metrics such as density within heterogeneous environments is challenging. We aimed to quantify the population density and spatial distribution of buffy-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix aurita) in the northern region of Serra-do-Mar State Park. We incorporated habitat suitability as quantified by a niche modeling algorithm (MAXENT) to refine density estimates obtained via distance methods. We used 6 environmental predictors to model the distribution of Callithrix aurita and used the resulting MAXENT niche model to identify environmental conditions that represent suitable habitat for this species. We used 877.7 km of line transect surveys and distance methods to derive estimates of 2.19 groups or 7.55 individuals/km2 from direct observations (n = 40), providing an overall population estimate of 1892 (95% CI = 1155-3068) individuals in 250.7 km2 of Atlantic forest. Our refined density estimate, obtained by combining distance methods and a niche model, yielded a result of 1386 individuals. Suitable habitat was not uniformly distributed across the study area and was most strongly associated with altitude and the type of vegetation cover. We provide a review of previous surveys and find this is the largest known population of Callithrix aurita. Our refinement of density estimates provides a simple and informative addition to the primatologist's toolbox. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Brocardo C.R.,Claro | Brocardo C.R.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao | Rodarte R.,Claro | Bueno R.S.,Claro | And 2 more authors.
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2012

The Atlantic Forest is one of the most studied Brazilian biomes in relation to its mammalian fauna. However, there is still a series of gaps of knowledge about the distribution and persistence of some of these species which prevents taking adequate conservation measures to better protect the mammals. In order to make the inventory of the non-volant mammalian fauna of the Carlos Botelho State Park (SP), we compiled data of camera trapping, diurnal census, track records, pitfall and live trapping collected over 8 years (2004-2012). We registered a total of 53 species, of which 12 are regionally threatened and one is an exotic species (Lepus europaeus), including the presence of most mammal species expected for the Paranapiacaba Forest Continuum. The high non-volant mammals species richness allied to the presence of threatened species, strengthen the role of this protected area for mammal conservation in the Atlantic Forest. Although, the local extinction of one species, Tayassu pecari, alert to the need for effective measures of protection.

Nomura F.,Federal University of Goais | Nomura F.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao | De Marco P.,Federal University of Goais | Carvalho A.F.A.,Claro | Rossa-Feres D.C.,São Paulo State University
Ethology Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Predation is a primary driver of tadpole assemblages, and the activity rate is a good predictor of the tadpoles' tolerance for predation risk. The conflicting demands between activity and exposure to predation can generate suboptimal behaviours. Because morphological components, such as body colouration, may affect the activity of tadpoles, we predict that environmental features that enhance or match the tadpole colouration should affect their survival or activity rate in the presence of a predator. We tested this prediction experimentally by assessing the mortality rate of tadpoles of Rhinella schneideri and Eupemphix nattereri and the active time on two artificial background types: one bright-coloured and one black-coloured. We found no difference in tadpole mortality due to the background type. However, R. schneideri tadpoles were more active than E. nattereri tadpoles, and the activity of R. schneideri was reduced less in the presence of the predator than that of E. nattereri. Although the background colouration did not affect the tadpole mortality rate, it was a stimulus that elicited behavioural responses in the tadpoles, leading them to adjust their activity rate to the type of background colour. © 2013 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italia.

Magrini M.J.,University of Campinas | Freitas A.V.L.,University of Campinas | Uehara-Prado M.,Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao
Zoologia | Year: 2011

The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is currently reduced to about 12% of its original range. Among the components that make up its great diversity, there are species with the potential to be bioindicators, which can be very important for conservation-oriented studies. This study compares the species composition, abundance and sex ratio of terrestrial isopods in sites that show different anthropogenic disturbance histories and are located within four reserves in the Atlantic Forest of southwestern Brazil. Our study explores these crustaceans as indicators of anthropogenic disturbance. The influence of one of the following factors was explored in each protected area: 1) history of vegetation harvesting, 2) trail management, 3) Eucalyptus planting, and 4) edge effect. A total of 2,217 individuals of six species (Atlantoscia sp., Benthana werneri Lemos de Castro, 1958, Pseudodiploexochus tabularis (Barnard, 1932), Pudeoniscus obscures Lemos de Castro, 1973, Styloniscus spinosus (Patience, 1907), and Trichorhina sp.) were captured in pitfall traps. The composition of isopod species was different between most of the contrasting sites within reserves, and was similar among the less disturbed sites of different reserves. The total number of isopod individuals and the sex ratio were not different between the contrasting sites within most of the reserves and only the sex ratio of Atlantoscia sp. differed between contrasting sites of one protected area. Upon an individual analysis of each species, S. spinosus (an exotic species) was most abundant in more disturbed sites. The distributions of B. werneri and Atlantoscia sp. over time were relatively synchronous, except where S. spinosus was abundant. Our results also indicate that the exotic species S. spinosus may benefit from the vegetation mosaic produced by disturbance, so differences in abundance of this species may be useful for bioindication. A change in the spatial and temporal structure of Oniscidea communities caused by anthropogenic disturbance may have a cascade effect on ecological cycles because terrestrial isopods play a fundamental role in nutrient cycling. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia.

PubMed | Instituto Neotropical Pesquisa e Conservacao
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2016

In this article, we describe a new species of Scinax from the state of Paran, southern Brazil, based on the external morphology of adults and their advertisement calls. The new species is diagnosed by the size of its males (SVL 27.8-31.6 mm); the snout subovoid in the dorsal view and slightly acuminate in profile; the vocal sac subgular and ventrally not reaching the pectoral region; and the advertisement call composed of a single pulsed note with 7-13 pulses, and a duration of 0.16-0.25s. This new species occurs in natural highland grassland formations, in the threatened ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paran, southern Brazil.

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