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Vale F.F.,University of Lisbon | Oleastro M.,Instituto Nacional Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) successfully colonizes the human stomach of the majority of the human population. This infection always causes chronic gastritis, but may evolve to serious outcomes, such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori first line therapy recommended by the Maastricht-4 Consensus Report comprises the use of two antibiotics and a proton-pomp inhibitor, but in some regions failure associated with this treatment is already undesirable high. Indeed, treatment failure is one of the major problems associated with H. pylori infection and is mainly associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance. In order to counteract this situation, some effort has been allocated during the last years in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives beyond antibiotics. These include vaccines, probiotics, photodynamic inactivation and phage therapy, which are briefly revisited in this review. A particular focus on phytomedicine, also described as herbal therapy and botanical therapy, which consists in the use of plant extracts for medicinal purposes, is specifically addressed, namely considering its history, category of performed studies, tested compounds, active principle and mode of action. The herbs already experienced are highly diverse and usually selected from products with a long history of employment against diseases associated with H. pylori infection from each country own folk medicine. The studies demonstrated that many phytomedicine products have an anti-H. pylori activity and gastroprotective action. Although the mechanism of action is far from being completely understood, current knowledge correlates the beneficial action of herbs with inhibition of essential H. pylori enzymes, modulation of the host immune system and with attenuation of inflammation. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Paulo L.,University of Beira Interior | Oleastro M.,Instituto Nacional Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | Gallardo E.,University of Beira Interior | Queiroz J.A.,University of Beira Interior | Domingues F.,University of Beira Interior
Food Research International | Year: 2011

There is considerable interest in alternative approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori using biologically active compounds including antioxidants from a wide range of natural sources. In this work we have investigated the antibacterial properties of resveratrol towards different H. pylori strains. In addition we studied the inhibition of H. pylori urease by resveratrol and red wine. In those assays, resveratrol inhibited the growth of all the 17 H. pylori strains tested, with inhibition diameters ranging from 16 to 28 mm and minimum inhibitory concentration values varying from 25 to 100. μg/mL, confirming its antimicrobial properties. Moreover, resveratrol and red wines showed an inhibitory effect on H. pylori urease activity, which is considered a virulence factor of this organism and essential for colonization and establishment of the infection. Further kinetic analysis revealed that inhibition occurred in a non-competitive and concentration-dependent manner. Overall, the results suggest that resveratrol and red wine may have potential for new therapy schemes that include natural products as an alternative therapeutic approach. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Mefford H.C.,University of Washington | Rosenfeld J.A.,Signature | Shur N.,Rhode Island Hospital | Slavotinek A.M.,University of California at San Francisco | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genomic disorder characterised by intellectual disability, growth retardation, unusual facial morphology and other anomalies. To date, 20 patients have been reported; 18 have had detailed breakpoint analysis. Aim: To further delineate the features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, the clinical and molecular characterisation of fifteen patients with deletions in the 15q24 region was performed, nearly doubling the number of reported patients. Methods: Breakpoints were characterised using a custom, high-density array comparative hybridisation platform, and detailed phenotype information was collected for each patient. Results: Nine distinct deletions with different breakpoints ranging in size from 266 kb to 3.75 Mb were identified. The majority of breakpoints lie within segmental duplication (SD) blocks. Low sequence identity and large intervals of unique sequence between SD blocks likely contribute to the rarity of 15q24 deletions, which occur 8-10 times less frequently than 1q21 or 15q13 microdeletions in our series. Two small, atypical deletions were identified within the region that help delineate the critical region for the core phenotype in the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome. Conclusion: The molecular characterisation of these patients suggests that the core cognitive features of the 15q24 microdeletion syndrome, including developmental delays and severe speech problems, are largely due to deletion of genes in a 1.1-Mb critical region. However, genes just distal to the critical region also play an important role in cognition and in the development of characteristic facial features associated with 15q24 deletions. Clearly, deletions in the 15q24 region are variable in size and extent. Knowledge of the breakpoints and size of deletion combined with the natural history and medical problems of our patients provide insights that will inform management guidelines. Based on common phenotypic features, all patients with 15q24 microdeletions should receive a thorough neurodevelopmental evaluation, physical, occupational and speech therapies, and regular audiologic and ophthalmologic screening.

Saraiva-Pava K.,Catholic University of Portugal | Navabi N.,Gothenburg University | Skoog E.C.,Gothenburg University | Linden S.K.,Gothenburg University | And 2 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

AIM: To establish a cellular model correctly mimicking the gastric epithelium to overcome the limitation in the study of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection. METHODS: Aiming to overcome this limitation, clones of the heterogenic cancer-derived NCI-N87 cell line were isolated, by stably-transducing it with the human telomerase reverse-transcriptase (hTERT) catalytic subunit gene. The clones were first characterized regarding their cell growth pattern and phenotype. For that we measured the clones' adherence properties, expression of cell-cell junctions' markers (ZO-1 and E-cadherin) and ability to generate a sustained transepithelial electrical resistance. The gastric properties of the clones, concerning expression of mucins, zymogens and glycan contents, were then evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining, Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and PAS/Alcian Blue-staining, immunocytochemistry and Western blot. In addition, we assessed the usefulness of the hTERT-expressing gastric cell line for H. pylori research, by performing co-culture assays and measuring the IL-8 secretion, by ELISA, upon infection with two H. pylori strains differing in virulence. RESULTS: Compared with the parental cell line, the most promising NCI-hTERT-derived clones (CL5 and CL6) were composed of cells with homogenous phenotype, presented higher relative telomerase activities, better adhesion properties, ability to be maintained in culture for longer periods after confluency, and were more efficient in PAS-reactive mucins secretion. Both clones were shown to produce high amounts of MUC1, MUC2 and MUC13. NCI-hTERT-CL5 mucins were shown to be decorated with blood group H type 2 (BG-H), Lewis-x (Lex), Ley and Lea and, in a less extent, with BG-A antigens, but the former two antigens were not detected in the NCI-hTERT-CL6. None of the clones exhibited detectable levels of MUC6 nor sialylated Lex and Lea glycans. Entailing good gastric properties, both NCIhTERT- clones were found to produce pepsinogen-5 and human gastric lipase. The progenitor-like phenotype of NCI-hTERT-CL6 cells was highlighted by large nuclei and by the apical vesicular-like distribution of mucin 5AC and Pg5, supporting the accumulation of mucus-secreting and zymogens-chief mature cells functions. CONCLUSION: These traits, in addition to resistance to microaerobic conditions and good responsiveness to H. pylori co-culture, in a strain virulence-dependent manner, make the NCI-hTERT-CL6 a promising model for future in vitro studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

Vitoriano I.,Catholic University of Portugal | Vitor J.M.B.,University of Lisbon | Oleastro M.,Instituto Nacional Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | Roxo-Rosa M.,Instituto Nacional Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aims: To understand whether the variability found in the proteome of Helicobacter pylori relates to the genomic methylation, virulence and associated gastric disease. Methods and Results: We applied the Minimum-Common-Restriction-Modification (MCRM) algorithm to genomic methylation data of 30 Portuguese H. pylori strains, obtained by genome sensitivity to Type II restriction enzymes' digestion. All the generated dendrograms presented three clusters with no association with gastric disease. Comparative analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) maps obtained for total protein extracts of 10 of these strains, representative of the three main clusters, revealed that among 70 matched protein spots (in a universe of 300), 16 were differently abundant (P < 0·05) among clusters. Of these, 13 proteins appear to be related to the cagA genotype or gastric disease. The abundance of three protein species, DnaK, GlnA and HylB, appeared to be dictated by the methylation status of their gene promoter. Conclusions: Variations in the proteome profile of strains with common geographic origin appear to be related to differences in cagA genotype or gastric disease, rather than to clusters organized according to strain genomic methylation. Significance and Impact of the Study: The simultaneous study of the genomic methylation and proteome is important to correlate epigenetic modifications with gene expression and pathogen virulence. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

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