Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura

Las Piedras, Uruguay

Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura

Las Piedras, Uruguay
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This paper shows the results of a study carried out during four years (2001-2004). Its aim was the characterization of Tannat, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes cultivated in the south of Uruguay. The results were evaluated to qualify the enological potential of these varieties of Vitis vinifera L. Typical cultivation situations in the region were included of each variety. The grapes were analysed at harvest for determination of global composition and polyphenolic potential. Tannat grapes presented very different characteristics in relation to other varieties. Tannat had the highest percentage of seeds, berry weight, sugar contents, total acidity, total polyphenols, total anthocyanins, extractable anthocyanins, skin tannins and seed tannins levels. Also, they had the lowest pH values and the highest EA%, corresponding to the lowest extractability of anthocyanins. The effect of vintage on the grape composition was very important, according to the impact of the climatic conditions in the synthesis of quality components of berries. However, the joint consideration of analytical indexes of base composition, polyphenolic potential and structure of the berry allowed a perfect discrimination of samples of each variety.


Gonzalez-Neves G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Gil G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Barreiro L.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis | Year: 2010

The pigment profile of Tannat red wines made with different winemaking techniques was evaluated over one year. The wines were made with one traditional and three alternative winemaking techniques: traditional maceration (TM), cold pre-fermentative maceration (CPM), delayed extraction of anthocyanins (DEA), and extended maceration (EM). Two vinifications were carried out for each technique, using 70. kg of grapes per technique. The wines were analyzed at devatting and 3, 6 and 12 months later. The pigment composition was analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The anthocyanin content of the control wines (TM) was significantly higher at all times. At devatting, the contents of 10 grape anthocyanins and some of their derived pigments showed statistical differences between the control wines and the other wines. The levels of vitisin A in the control wines showed no statistical differences with the levels in the CPM wines, but they were significantly higher than in the other wines. One year later, the TM wines showed significantly higher content only of delphinidin and petunidin 3-glucosides, delphinidin acetyl-glucoside and malvidin coumaryl-glucoside pyruvate. The TM and the CPM wines showed higher content in vitisin A and other anthocyanin-derived pigments. The concentrations of some derived pigments, like vitisin A, increased with time in all the wines, while the concentration of the grape anthocyanins decreased highly significantly. Discriminant analysis of the data showed a significant separation of the wines obtained at different ageing times, in spite of the important differences that resulted from the different winemaking techniques. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Gonzalez-Neves G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Gil G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Charamelo D.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Balado J.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The phenolic potential of the grapes of Tannat, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot produced in the south region of Uruguay was analysed in four years. The grapes of Tannat had the highest total phenolic richness (A280 = 80.0), total anthocyanin potential (ApH1 = 2540 mg L-1) and extractable anthocyanin potential (ApH3.2 = 1269 mg L-1), although there were important differences between the years. Representative winemaking of each vineyard was carried out. The differences verified in the grapes phenolic indexes were related to the colour and polyphenolic composition of the wines. The correlations between the phenolic indexes of the grapes and the colour and polyphenolic composition of the wines were very high. The estimation of the polyphenolic richness and the extractability of the anthocyanins of the grapes allow to improve the management of the winemaking and the prediction of the chromatic characteristics and the global polyphenolic composition of the wines. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Favre G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Pena-Neira A.,University of Chile | Baldi C.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Hernandez N.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Low molecular weight phenols of Tannat red wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM), Prefermentative Cold Maceration (PCM), Maceration Enzyme (ENZ) and grape-Seed Tannins additions (ST), were performed and discussed. Alternatives to TM increased wine phenolic contents but unequally, ST increased mainly smaller flavans-3-ol, PCM anthocyanins and ENZ proanthocyanidins (up to 2250 mg/L). However low molecular weight flavan-3-ols remained below 9 mg/L in all wines, showing that there is not necessarily a correspondence between wine richness in total tannins and flavan-3-ols contents at low molecular weight. PCM wines had particularly high concentrations of tyrosol and tryptophol, yeast metabolism derived compounds. The use of grape-seed enological tannins did not increase grape seed derived phenolic compounds such as gallic acid. Caftaric acid was found in concentrations much higher than those reported in other grape varieties. Wine phenolic content and composition was considerably affected by the winemaking procedures tested. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gonzalez-Neves G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gil G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Favre G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Baldi C.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2013

The influence of winemaking procedure and grape variety on the colour and composition of young red wines was evaluated. For this purpose, Tannat, Syrah and Merlot wines were elaborated in Uruguay in 2011. Traditional maceration (TM), the addition of pectolytic enzymes (ENZ) and cold pre-fermentative maceration before traditional maceration (CPM) were the alternative procedures of winemaking tested. Two batches of grapes (70 kg each) were employed for each winemaking procedure. Tannat wines had the highest colour intensity, red colour (a*), and anthocyanin, proanthocyanidin and alcohol content, and the lowest luminosity (L*) and pH values. CPM increased the colour intensity and total polyphenol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content in Tannat and Merlot wines. Pectolytic additions enhanced colour intensity and red colour and decreased the luminosity in all wines. Meanwhile, enzyme additions enhanced proanthocyanidin content in all cases. Pectolytic enzyme significantly increased the methanol levels of the wines. Nevertheless, the amounts of this compound are far within maximum acceptable limits. Principal component analysis of the data shows significant separation between the wines of each variety, since the colour and composition are largely related to the cultivar and the vintage, despite the effect of the winemaking procedures.


Gonzalez-Neves G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gil G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Favre G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Ferrer M.,University of the Republic of Uruguay
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The anthocyanin composition of Tannat red wines obtained with four winemaking techniques was evaluated in different years. The wines were elaborated with traditional maceration (TM), cold pre-fermentative maceration, delayed extraction of anthocyanins and extended maceration. Two vinifications were carried out for each technique, employing 70kg of grapes in each one. The anthocyanin composition of wines was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. The results confirm the fundamental role of the grape composition on the anthocyanin composition of the wines. The winemaking had an important effect on the total concentration of anthocyanins and also may modify the anthocyanic profile of wines. The wines obtained with TM had higher or similar content of anthocyanins than those elaborated with the other techniques. Canonical discriminant analysis of data showed that vintage has a greater effect on anthocyanin concentration than winemaking techniques. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Gonzalez-Neves G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Favre G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gil G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four fining agents on the colour and pigment composition of red wines of Tannat. The wines were analysed 15 days after fining and immediately after separation of sediments and bottling. Colour was evaluated by spectrophotometry and polyphenols were analysed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD. The colour intensity of wine was significantly decreased by bentonite and egg albumin. The most remarkable effects on wine phenolic composition were produced by bentonite and gelatin, which significantly decreased anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, respectively. Results show that each fining agent has very different impact on the wine attributes, and their effects depended as well on the composition of the clarified wine. The use of non-traditional agents of fining, as vegetable proteins, may have less impact on the colour and anthocyanin content of red wines. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gonzalez-Neves G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Favre G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gil G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura | Ferrer M.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Charamelo D.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) is an interesting winemaking technique to enhance the extraction of pigments, aroma and flavour compounds from grape skins to wine. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) on the composition of Tannat red wines produced in Uruguay in several vintages. For this purpose, wines elaborated by CPM were compared with control wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM) in 4 years. Control wines (TM) were made with classical fermentation on skins. The CPM was carried out with additions of dry ice for 5 days to keep the must at 10 ºC. Wines were analysed at devatting. The impact of CPM on composition and color of wines was different in each year. Color intensity was significantly higher in CPM than control wines in 2007 and 2009 whereas the anthocyanins levels were higher in control wines every year. However, CPM wines had the highest polyphenols contents in 2007, 2009 and 2010 principally due to their catechins and proanthocyanidins contents. Anthocyanin profile was similar in the wines of each vintage, according to the varietal fingerprint. The highest contents of higher alcohols were verified in CPM wines. The Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration could have an important effect on the characteristics of Tannat red wines, although it depends strongly on the composition of the grapes of origin. © 2014, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).


Gonzalez-Neves G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Favre G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Piccardo D.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gil G.,Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Anthocyanins are the main pigments of young red wines. The aim of this work was to evaluate the anthocyanin composition of red wines produced by alternative procedures of winemaking and different grape varieties. For this purpose, wines of Tannat, Syrah and Merlot were made by traditional maceration (TM), addition of maceration enzymes (ENZ) and cold soak (CS). Syrah wines had the highest proportions of malvidin (86.0 ± 1.0) and peonidin (5.5 ± 0.4), while Tannat wines had the highest of delphinidin (6.9 ± 0.8), petunidin (13.2 ± 0.6) and nonacylated glucosides (73.6 ± 0.6). Cold soak increased the anthocyanins contents in Tannat and Merlot wines. In turn, maceration enzymes affect the anthocyanin profile and the stability of the colour of wines. Discriminant analysis of data showed significant separation of the wines of each variety as the anthocyanin profile showed the varietal fingerprint, despite the different winemaking procedures. © 2016 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


PubMed | University of the Republic of Uruguay and Instituto Nacional Of Vitivinicultura
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2015

Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) is an interesting winemaking technique to enhance the extraction of pigments, aroma and flavour compounds from grape skins to wine. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) on the composition of Tannat red wines produced in Uruguay in several vintages. For this purpose, wines elaborated by CPM were compared with control wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM) in 4years. Control wines (TM) were made with classical fermentation on skins. The CPM was carried out with additions of dry ice for 5days to keep the must at 10C. Wines were analysed at devatting. The impact of CPM on composition and color of wines was different in each year. Color intensity was significantly higher in CPM than control wines in 2007 and 2009 whereas the anthocyanins levels were higher in control wines every year. However, CPM wines had the highest polyphenols contents in 2007, 2009 and 2010 principally due to their catechins and proanthocyanidins contents. Anthocyanin profile was similar in the wines of each vintage, according to the varietal fingerprint. The highest contents of higher alcohols were verified in CPM wines. The Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration could have an important effect on the characteristics of Tannat red wines, although it depends strongly on the composition of the grapes of origin.

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