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Vullo C.M.,Forensic Genetics Laboratory | Romero M.,Forensic Genetics Laboratory | Catelli L.,Forensic Genetics Laboratory | Sakic M.,International Commission for Missing Persons ICMP | And 13 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2016

The GHEP-ISFG Working Group has recognized the importance of assisting DNA laboratories to gain expertise in handling DVI or missing persons identification (MPI) projects which involve the need for large-scale genetic profile comparisons. Eleven laboratories participated in a DNA matching exercise to identify victims from a hypothetical conflict with 193 missing persons. The post mortem database was comprised of 87 skeletal remain profiles from a secondary mass grave displaying a minimal number of 58 individuals with evidence of commingling. The reference database was represented by 286 family reference profiles with diverse pedigrees. The goal of the exercise was to correctly discover re-associations and family matches. The results of direct matching for commingled remains re-associations were correct and fully concordant among all laboratories. However, the kinship analysis for missing persons identifications showed variable results among the participants. There was a group of laboratories with correct, concordant results but nearly half of the others showed discrepant results exhibiting likelihood ratio differences of several degrees of magnitude in some cases. Three main errors were detected: (a) some laboratories did not use the complete reference family genetic data to report the match with the remains, (b) the identity and/or non-identity hypotheses were sometimes wrongly expressed in the likelihood ratio calculations, and (c) many laboratories did not properly evaluate the prior odds for the event. The results suggest that large-scale profile comparisons for DVI or MPI is a challenge for forensic genetics laboratories and the statistical treatment of DNA matching and the Bayesian framework should be better standardized among laboratories. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ravina M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Cubillo E.,Instituto Nacional Of Toxicologia Y Ciencias Forenses Intcf | Novoa-Carballal R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Fernandez-Megia E.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 4 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2010

Purpose To design hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan-g-poly (ethylene glycol) (CS-g-PEG) nanoparticles intended for a broad range of gene delivery applications. Methods Nanoparticles formulated at different HA/CS-g-PEG mass ratios were developed to associate either pDNA or siRNA. The physico-chemical characteristics, morphology, association efficiency and nuclease protection ability of the nanocarriers were compared for these two molecules. Their biological performance, including transfection effciency, nanoparticle cellular uptake and citotoxicity, was assesed. Results The resulting nanoparticles showed an adequate size (between 130 and 180 nm), and their surface charge could be modulated according to the nanoparticle composition (from +30 mV to -20 mV). All prototypes exhibited a greater association efficiency and nuclease protection for pDNA than for siRNA. However, cell culture experiments evidenced that HA/CS-g-PEG nanoparticles were effective carriers for the delivery of both, siRNA and pDNA, eliciting a biological response with minimal cytotoxicity. Moreover, experiments performed in the HEK-EGFP-Snail1 cell line showed the potential of the HA/CS-g-PEG nanoparticles to silence the expression of the Snail1 transcription factor, an important mediator in tumor progression. Conclusions HA/CS-g-PEG nanoparticles can be easily modulated for the delivery of different types of gene molecules, offering great potential for gene therapy applications, as evidenced by their biological performance. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source

Cubillo E.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Cubillo E.,Instituto Nacional Of Toxicologia Y Ciencias Forenses Intcf | Diaz-Lopez A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Cuevas E.P.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

E12/E47 proteins (encoded by E2A gene) are members of the class I basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (also known as E proteins). E47 has been described as repressor of E-cadherin and inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We reported previously that EMT mediated by E47 in MDCK cells occurs with a concomitant overexpression of Id1 and Id3 proteins. Id proteins belong to class V of HLH factors that lack the basic domain; they dimerise with E proteins and prevent their DNA interaction, thus, acting as dominant negative of E proteins. Here, we show that E47 interacts with Id1 in E47 overexpressing MDCK cells that underwent a full EMT as well as in mesenchymal breast carcinoma and melanoma cell lines. By conducting chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that E47 binds directly to the endogenous E-cadherin promoter of mesenchymal MDCK-E47 cells in a complex devoid of Id1. Importantly, our data suggest that both E47 and Id1 are required to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype of MDCK-E47 cells. These data support the collaboration between E47 and Id1 in the maintenance of EMT by mechanisms independent of the dominant negative action of Id1 on E47 binding to E-cadherin promoter. Finally, the analysis of several N0 breast tumour series indicates that the expression of E47 and ID1 is significantly associated with the basal-like phenotype supporting the biological significance of the present findings. © 2013 Cubillo et al. Source

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