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Lopes A.I.,University of Lisbon | Vale F.F.,University of Lisbon | Oleastro M.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods, a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication therapy. Only highly accurate tests should be used in clinical practice, and the sensitivity and specificity of an adequate test should exceed 90%. The choice of tests should take into account clinical circumstances, the likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests, the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy and the availability of the tests. This review concerns some of the most recent developments in diagnostic methods of H. Pylori infection, namely the contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation methodologies for the diagnosis of H. Pylori infection, such as magnifying endoscopy techniques and chromoendoscopy. In addition, the diagnostic contribution of histology and the urea breath test was explored recently in specific clinical settings and patient groups. Recent studies recommend enhancing the number of biopsy fragments for the rapid urease test. Bacterial culture from the gastric biopsy is the gold standard technique, and is recommended for antibiotic susceptibility test. Serology is used for initial screening and the stool antigen test is particularly used when the urea breath test is not available, while molecular methods have gained attention mostly for detecting antibiotic resistance. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

The I-MOVE\ Consortium includes European Union (EU) Public Health Institutes, SME and Universities. It aims at measuring and comparing the effectiveness (VE) and impact (VI) of influenza and Pneumococcal vaccines and vaccination strategies a in the elderly population in Europe. The goal is to develop a sustainable platform of primary care practices, hospitals and laboratory networks that share validated methods to evaluate post marketing vaccine performances. The objectives are to identify, pilot test, and disseminate in EU the best study designs to measure, on a real time basis, VE (direct effect) and the VI of vaccination programmes (indirect and overall effect) against laboratory confirmed cases of influenza (types/subtypes) and pneumococcal disease (serotypes), and clinical outcomes. Cost effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results will allow to understand factors affecting specific VE, the duration of protection of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, the interaction between vaccines, the role of repeated vaccinations, the occurrence of serotype replacement (pneumococcus); identify vaccine types and brands with low VE; guide the decision of the WHO committees on vaccine strain selection (influenza); provide robust benefit indicators (VE and VI) and cost benefit and effectiveness results; guide vaccination strategies (schedules, doses, boosters). This EU member state collaboration will respond to questions that require studies based on large sample sizes and sharing of expertise that cannot be achieved by one country alone. It will allow the best methods to be used and results to benefit to all EU countries whatever their current public health achievements. Results will be shared with international partners.

Costa S.,University of Minho | Costa S.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | Almeida A.,Hitag Biotechnology Lad. | Castro A.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | Domingues L.,University of Minho
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Proteins are now widely produced in diverse microbial cell factories. The Escherichia coli is still the dominant host for recombinant protein production but, as a bacterial cell, it also has its issues: the aggregation of foreign proteins into insoluble inclusion bodies is perhaps the main limiting factor of the E. coli expression system. Conversely, E. coli benefits of cost, ease of use and scale make it essential to design new approaches directed for improved recombinant protein production in this host cell. With the aid of genetic and protein engineering novel tailored-made strategies can be designed to suit user or process requirements. Gene fusion technology has been widely used for the improvement of soluble protein production and/or purification in E. coli, and for increasing peptide's immunogenicity as well. New fusion partners are constantly emerging and complementing the traditional solutions, as for instance, the Fh8 fusion tag that has been recently studied and ranked among the best solubility enhancer partners. In this review, we provide an overview of current strategies to improve recombinant protein production in E. coli, including the key factors for successful protein production, highlighting soluble protein production, and a comprehensive summary of the latest available and traditionally used gene fusion technologies. A special emphasis is given to the recently discovered Fh8 fusion system that can be used for soluble protein production, purification, and immunogenicity in E. coli. The number of existing fusion tags will probably increase in the next few years, and efforts should be taken to better understand how fusion tags act in E. coli. This knowledge will undoubtedly drive the development of new tailored-made tools for protein production in this bacterial system. © 2014 Costa, Almeida, Castro and Domingues. Source

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRADEV-2-2015 | Award Amount: 1.51M | Year: 2016

ERINHA2 aims to complete the work carried out during the first preparatory phase (PP1) - ERINHA - in order to reach the financial, administrative and technical maturity necessary to complete the establishment of the Research Infrastructre and ensure that the operation phase can begin in 2018. ERINHA2 will therefore finalise the decision to use the status of an association and prepare the necessary legal document to register the RI depending on the country voted on to host the Central Coordinating Unit. ERINHA2 will prepare all procedures and protocols (human resources, IPR, ethics) needed to effectively operate the RI. The financial and business plans prepared in ERINHA (PP1) will updated and presented to national and international stakeholders to obtain their agreement to fund the infrastructure. An overarching group of activities - WP5, Stakeholders and commitment - will aim to accompany all partner countries in their efforts to obtain agreements and funding. This WP5 will ensure all relevant stakeholders and potential users are informed of the progress, services and benefits of ERINHA. The utlimate outcome of ERINHA2 will be the signtature of the ERINHA statutes among the founding countries to officially establish the RI and enter into the construction phase.

Barbosa C.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | Barbosa C.,University of Lisbon | Romao L.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge | Romao L.,University of Lisbon
RNA | Year: 2014

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a key mediator hormone for hypoxic induction of erythropoiesis that also plays important nonhematopoietic functions. It has been shown that EPO gene expression regulation occurs at different levels, including transcription and mRNA stabilization. In this report, we show that expression of EPO is also regulated at the translational level by an upstream open reading frame (uORF) of 14 codons. As judged by comparisons of protein and mRNA levels, the uORF acts as a cis-acting element that represses translation of the main EPO ORF in unstressed HEK293, HepG2, and HeLa cells. However, in response to hypoxia, this repression is significantly released, specifically in HeLa cells, through a mechanism that involves processive scanning of ribosomes from the 5' end of the EPO transcript and enhanced ribosome bypass of the uORF. In addition, we demonstrate that in HeLa cells, hypoxia induces the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) concomitantly with a significant increase of EPO protein synthesis. These findings provide a framework for understanding that production of high levels of EPO induced by hypoxia also involves regulation at the translational level. © 2014 Barbosa and Romão. Source

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