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Torres J.R.,Central University of Venezuela | Orduna T.A.,Hospital Of Infecciosas F J Muniz | Pina-Pozas M.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Vazquez-Vega D.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Sarti E.,Sanofi S.A.
Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2017

Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. © 2017 Jaime Rafael Torres et al.


Benowitz N.,University of California at San Francisco | Goniewicz M.L.,University of California at San Francisco | Goniewicz M.L.,University of Silesia | Eisner M.D.,University of California at San Francisco | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2010

Objectives: Cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are widely used biomarkers for tobacco-derived nicotine and the lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), respectively. The discrepancy between cotinine levels in relation to disease risk comparing active versus passive smoking suggests a nonlinear tobacco smoke dose-response and/or that cotinine is not providing an accurate measure of exposure to the toxic constituents of secondhand tobacco smoke. Methods: Cotinine and NNAL were measured in the urine of 373 active smokers and 228 passive smokers. Results: Average cotinine levels were 1,155 (interquartile range, 703-2,715) for active smokers and 1.82 (0.45-7.33) ng/mg creatinine for passive smokers. Average NNAL levels were 183 (103-393) and 5.19 (2.04-11.6) pg/mg creatinine, respectively. NNAL/cotinine ratio in urine was significantly higher for passive smokers when compared with active smokers (2.85 × 103 versus 0.16 × 103, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Passive smoking is associated with a much higher ratio of NNAL/cotinine in the urine compared with active smoking. Impact: Cotinine measurement leads to an underestimation of exposure to the carcinogen NNK from second-hand smoke when compared with active smoking. ©2010 AACR.


Gomez L.F.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Moreno J.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Gomez O.L.,University of Valle | Carvajal R.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Parra D.C.,Washington University in St. Louis
Quality of Life Research | Year: 2013

Objectives: To examine the associations of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and walking for transportation (WT) with the physical and mental dimensions of healthrelated quality of life (HR-QOL) among women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009 among 1,263 women ages 18-59 years living in neighborhoods with low and middle-low socioeconomic status in the urban area of Cali. HR-QOL was assessed using the Short Form 8 (SF-8). LTPA andWTwere measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Associations were assessed using linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Low (10-149 min) and medium-high (at least 150 min) levels of WT were negatively associated with the mental and physical dimensions of HR-QOL. Low (10-149 min of moderate intensity PA, or 10-74 min of vigorous intensity PA) and medium-high (at least 150 or 75 min of moderate or vigorous intensity PA, respectively) levels of LTPA were positively associated with both dimensions. Significant interactions were observed between education level and perceived safety from traffic. Conclusions: This study found that WT and LTPA were associated with HR-QOL both in the physical and mental dimensions; however, the direction and magnitude of the association varied by domain. These results highlight the need to better understand the links between PA and HRQOL in urban contexts from Latin America. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.


Theodore F.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Bonvecchio A.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Blanco I.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Irizarry L.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011

Objective. Demonstrate the importance of the cultural factors that currently motivate Mexican children to consume sweetened beverages and examine their implications for the design of programs for the promotion of healthy lifestyles. Methods. A qualitative phenomenological study involving nine peer interviews and four discussion groups was conducted among children aged 9 and 10 years in four public schools in southern Mexico City. The interviews employed nine photographs of beverages that are available in schools and homes. The aim was to identify the culinary rules associated with the consumption of sweetened beverages and the different views held by the children about the beverages. The complete interviews and group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Matrixes were developed for analysis of the subject categories identified during the study. The analysis was based on "continuous comparison" of the statements made by boys and girls, and among students from the four schools. Results. Two main sociocultural elements, constructed in a given cultural framework, partly explain the children's current consumption patterns. The first, the nearly nonexistent concept that water is for drinking, with water consumption being limited to engagement in physical activity, in contrast to the wide range of circumstances and occasions found for the consumption of a sweetened beverage. Secondly, the identification of three principles that appear to underlie beverage consumption: the combination of salty food with sweet drinks, the important role of sweetened beverages at social events, and the close association between water consumption and the thirst induced by physical effort. Conclusions. The results show the importance of considering the role of socially significant elements in dietary practices and the need to also consider these elements when designing interventions for schoolchildren. It is also important to change the children's current views about what they drink, guiding and encouraging them to think of water as a drink to be consumed throughout the day and not only after physical activity. Finally, it is imperative in Mexico to guarantee free access to drinking water in schools and regulate food advertising that targets children.


Angel Garcia D.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Martinez Nicolas I.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Saturno Hernandez P.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico
Reumatologia Clinica | Year: 2016

Objectives: Efforts have been made to standardise evidence-based practice, but clinical practice guidelines do not always follow strict development methods. The objective of this review is to identify the current guidelines, analyse the variability of its recommendations and make a synthesis for clinical practice. Material and methods: A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines was made in electronic databases and guidelines databases; using "fibromyalgia" AND ["guideline" OR "Clinical Practice guideline"] as terms, from January for 2003 to July of 2013. Guidelines were selected according to the following criteria: a) aimed to fibromyalgia treatment in adults; b) based on scientific evidence, systematically searched; c) evidence levels and strength of recommendation included; d) written in English or Spanish. Results: From 249 initial results, six guides fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Clinical practice guidelines analysed in this review show great variability both in the presence and level of evidence and in the strength of recommendation of many treatments. Physical exercise and cognitive-behavioural therapy are first-line treatments, showing high level of evidence. Amitriptyline, used for short periods of time for pain control, is the pharmacologic treatment with the most solid evidence. The multimodal approach reported better results than the isolated application of any treatment. Conclusions: Final recommendations in this review identify optimal treatments, facilitating the translation of evidence into practice and enabling more efficient and effective quality care. © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología.


Mejia-Rodriguez F.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Shamah-Levy T.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Villalpando S.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Garcia-Guerra A.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Humaran I.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2013

To describe the prevalence of serum iron and zinc deficiencies and low serum concentrations (LSC) of copper and magnesium in Mexican adults. Materials and methods. Blood samples from subjects (=20 years, both genders) participating in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey were used to measure the serum concentrations of s-ferritin, soluble-transferrin-receptor (s-TfR), zinc, copper, and magnesium. Results. The prevalence of s-ferritin=12ug/L was 18.1 and 3.6% while s-TfR 6mg/L was 9.5 and 4.4%, for females and males, respectively. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 33.8% females and 42.6% males; LSC of copper were 16.8 and 18.2%, and 36.3 and 31.0% for magnesium, for females and males, respectively. Conclusions. The prevalence of deficiencies in iron (in females), and zinc are still high in the adult population. LSC of copper and magnesium are published for the first time and show significant prevalence of deficiencies. Corrective actions are necessary in order to diminish these nutritional deficits in the Mexican population.


Pelcastre-Villafuerte B.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Dominguez-Esponda R.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Vazquez T.T.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico
Saude e Sociedade | Year: 2015

During the 2006-2012 six-year presidential term, a battle against drug trafficking began, which has been continued by the current president and it still occupies one of the first positions on the political agenda of Mexico. This battle has mobilized the national security forces and its consequences have gone through the political sphere and reached society as a whole. This is just one of the scenarios faced by the country; historical community conflicts and an atmosphere of generalized violence fueled by kidnappings, homicides, and various kinds of crimes accompany it. This essay thinks through how social research, namely the fieldwork phase, has also been affected by this context. The paper shows some obstacles that people working in the field (researchers, students, interviewers, and pollsters) have to face. It examines how this context is affecting the social research carried out, seriously compromising the results, and thinks over the research ethics, pointing out the lack of protective measures for the personnel participating in this kind of studies. © 2015, UNIV SAOPAULO. All rights reserved.


Magana Valladares L.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Suarez Conejero J.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico
Gaceta Medica de Mexico | Year: 2014

This paper analyzes an educational intervention using Game Engine Learning (GELearning) in the project Leadership in Ecohealth for Vector Born Diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean, financed by the IDRC-Canada, and whose training component is coordinated by the National Institute of Public Health of Mexico. GELearning is an educational tool that uses virtual educational games, where participants face real-life situations with clear pedagogical purposes. To learn through GELearning is to simulate situations, very similar to the ones faced in real life. The purpose for using GELearning was to evaluate it as an educational tool, to know the learning impact in participants, as well as to measure how GELearning favored the acquisition of competencies. The results indicate that this tool, besides the benefits already known from the information and communications technologies, contributes to significant learning in an environment that is attractive and stimulating for participants and favors the acquisition of competencies, especially those linked to superior taxonomic levels, which are associated to knowing "how to do" and "how to be".


PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico and University of Antioquia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cadernos de saude publica | Year: 2016

The aim of this review was to describe HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, and the studies characteristics in terms of place, time, population, and sample design. This was a systematic review, not a meta-analysis, based on an article search in 10 electronic databases: Science Direct, MEDLINE, OVID, LILACS, Wiley InterScience, MD Consult, Springer Link, Embase, Web of Science, and Ebsco. A complementary search was also performed in the libraries of schools of public health and webpages of U.N. agencies, besides the reference lists from the selected articles. We selected observational studies focused on children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation, ranging in age from 10 to 20 years, with the results for HIV prevalence rates. A total of 9,829 references were retrieved, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria and comprise this descriptive summary. Of these 15 articles, 12 were conducted in children and youth living on the street and three in children subject to commercial sexual exploitation. All 15 were cross-sectional studies. HIV prevalence in children and youth living on the street ranged from 0% in Dallas, USA and Cochabamba, Bolivia to 37.4% in St. Petersburg, Russia. In children and youth living subject to commercial sexual exploitation, prevalence ranged from 2% in Toronto, Canada to 20% in Kolkata, India. In conclusion, HIV infection is present in children and youth living on the street and subject to commercial sexual exploitation. Measures are needed for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment as a public health priority and an ethical responsibility on the part of governments and society.


PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Salud publica de Mexico | Year: 2013

To describe the prevalence of serum iron and zinc deficiencies and low serum concentrations (LSC) of copper and magnesium in Mexican adults.Blood samples from subjects (20 years, both genders) participating in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey were used to measure the serum concentrations of s-ferritin, soluble- transferrin-receptor (s-TfR), zinc, copper, and magnesium.The prevalence of s-ferritin12 ug/L was 18.1 and 3.6% while s-TfR>6 mg/L was 9.5 and 4.4%, for females and males, respectively. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was 33.8% females and 42.6% males; LSC of copper were 16.8 and 18.2%, and 36.3 and 31.0% for magnesium, for females and males, respectively.The prevalence of deficiencies in iron (in females), and zinc are still high in the adult population. LSC of copper and magnesium are published for the first time and show significant prevalence of deficiencies. Corrective actions are necessary in order to diminish these nutritional deficits in the Mexican population.

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