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Vasquez-Salazar E.A.,Hospital Pablo Tobon Uribe | Ochoa-Marin S.C.,University of Antioquia | Duarte M.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico
Revista de salud pública (Bogotá, Colombia) | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Describing displaced males' responsiveness regarding issues concerning sexual and reproductive health, particularly contracting STI/HIV/AIDS.METHODOLOGY: An ethnographic study concerning displaced males who were living in shelters was carried out in Medellín, Colombia, from March to November 2010; observation and semi-structured interview techniques were used. Nineteen men(with and without a partner) aged 18 to 60 years old were interviewed; they had been suffering the effects of forced displacement for less than 1 year. The results were analyzed following grounded theory guidelines.RESULTS: Three main categories were analyzed: having been forcibly displaced and such impact on their daily life, issues related to their sexuality and their ability to respond. Despite forcibly displaced male shaving information about condo muse and perceiving the risk posed by STI/HIV/AIDS, they did not take preventative measures when engaging in their sexual practices and most assumed various risky behavior patterns. Living conditions in the hostel, few job opportunities and the culture regarding machismo increased the risk of acquiring an STI and decreased their responsiveness to them.CONCLUSION: Responsiveness to STI/HIV/AID Sin males who had been experiencing the hardships of having been recently displaced was seen to have become reduced because of the material and psychosocial conditions which they had to face. Policies and programs addressing this group's specific needs are required which are aimed at improving information regarding sexual and reproductive health, access to services and opportunities for decent work. Source


Gomez L.F.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Moreno J.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico | Gomez O.L.,University of Valle | Carvajal R.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Parra D.C.,Washington University in St. Louis
Quality of Life Research | Year: 2013

Objectives: To examine the associations of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and walking for transportation (WT) with the physical and mental dimensions of healthrelated quality of life (HR-QOL) among women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009 among 1,263 women ages 18-59 years living in neighborhoods with low and middle-low socioeconomic status in the urban area of Cali. HR-QOL was assessed using the Short Form 8 (SF-8). LTPA andWTwere measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Associations were assessed using linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Low (10-149 min) and medium-high (at least 150 min) levels of WT were negatively associated with the mental and physical dimensions of HR-QOL. Low (10-149 min of moderate intensity PA, or 10-74 min of vigorous intensity PA) and medium-high (at least 150 or 75 min of moderate or vigorous intensity PA, respectively) levels of LTPA were positively associated with both dimensions. Significant interactions were observed between education level and perceived safety from traffic. Conclusions: This study found that WT and LTPA were associated with HR-QOL both in the physical and mental dimensions; however, the direction and magnitude of the association varied by domain. These results highlight the need to better understand the links between PA and HRQOL in urban contexts from Latin America. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013. Source


Vasquez-Salazar E.A.,University of Medellin | Ochoa-Marin S.C.,University of Medellin | Duarte M.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Of Mexico
Revista de Salud Publica | Year: 2013

Objective Describing displaced males' responsiveness regarding issues concerning sexual and reproductive health, particularly contracting STI/HIV/AIDS. Methodology An ethnographic study concerning displaced males who were living in shelters was carried out in Medellín, Colombia, from March to November 2010; observation and semi-structured interview techniques were used. Nineteen men(with and without a partner) aged 18to60years old were interviewed; they had been suffering the effects of forced displacement for less than 1 year. The results were analyzed following grounded theory guidelines. Results Three main categories were analyzed: having been forcibly displaced and such impact on their daily life, issues related to their sexuality and their ability to respond. Despite forcibly displaced male shaving information about condo muse and perceiving the risk posed by STI/HIV/AIDS, they did not take preventative measures when engaging in their sexual practices and most assumed various risky behavior patterns. Living conditions in the hostel, few job opportunities and the culture regarding machismo increased the risk of acquiring an STI and decreased their responsiveness to them. Conclusion Responsiveness to STI/HIV/AID Sin males who had been experiencing the hardships of having been recently displaced was seen to have become reduced because of the material and psychosocial conditions which they had to face. Policies and programs addressing this group's specific needs are required which are aimed at improving information regarding sexual and reproductive health, access to services and opportunities for decent work. Source


Montes-Nunez S.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Chavez-Corral D.V.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | Reza-Lopez S.,University of Toronto | Sanin L.H.,Autonomous University of Chihuahua | And 3 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology | Year: 2011

Birth defects (BDs) are a serious public health problem in Mexico. The objective of this paper was to identify the frequency of newborns (NBs) that are born small for gestational age with a birth defect. +MATERIALS AND Methods: A cross-sectional study of NBs from hospitals part of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Chihuahua, Mexico, was conducted. NBs were classified according to the presence or absence of a BD and according to their weight percentile using regional standards of birth weight. Results: NBs diagnosed with (n = 263) or without BDs (n = 64,626) were included in this study. A greater proportion of NBs small for gestational age were identified in cases involving BDs (20%), compared with NBs without BDs (9%). Moreover, the average decrease in birth weights of NBs with BDs associated with their digestive system was 210 grams (95% confidence interval [CI], -436/-12), with their genital organs 440 grams (95% CI, -730/-151), involving chromosomal abnormalities 230 grams (95% CI, -435/-26), or with their musculoskeletal system 289 grams (95% CI, -43/-147) according to the gestational age, sex, and condition of the NB (p < 0.05). Conclusions: A greater proportion of NBs with BDs were associated with a low birth rate for their gestational age. In addition, some BDs were found to be associated with an impaired birth weight more often than others This suggests that clinical decisions regarding NBs with congenital defects and a lower birth weight for their gestational age should be diagnosed and treated for additional nutritional considerations as needed. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Benowitz N.,University of California at San Francisco | Goniewicz M.L.,University of California at San Francisco | Goniewicz M.L.,University of Silesia | Eisner M.D.,University of California at San Francisco | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2010

Objectives: Cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are widely used biomarkers for tobacco-derived nicotine and the lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), respectively. The discrepancy between cotinine levels in relation to disease risk comparing active versus passive smoking suggests a nonlinear tobacco smoke dose-response and/or that cotinine is not providing an accurate measure of exposure to the toxic constituents of secondhand tobacco smoke. Methods: Cotinine and NNAL were measured in the urine of 373 active smokers and 228 passive smokers. Results: Average cotinine levels were 1,155 (interquartile range, 703-2,715) for active smokers and 1.82 (0.45-7.33) ng/mg creatinine for passive smokers. Average NNAL levels were 183 (103-393) and 5.19 (2.04-11.6) pg/mg creatinine, respectively. NNAL/cotinine ratio in urine was significantly higher for passive smokers when compared with active smokers (2.85 × 103 versus 0.16 × 103, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Passive smoking is associated with a much higher ratio of NNAL/cotinine in the urine compared with active smoking. Impact: Cotinine measurement leads to an underestimation of exposure to the carcinogen NNK from second-hand smoke when compared with active smoking. ©2010 AACR. Source

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