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Objective. To analyze, in the context of increased health protection in Mexico, the gaps by socioeconomic status and poverty condition on effective coverage of selected preventive interventions. Materials and methods. Data from the National Health & Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006, using previously defined indicators of effective coverage and stratifying them by socioeconomic (SE) status and multidimensional poverty condition. Results. For vaccination interventions, immunological equity has been maintained in Mexico. For indicators related to preventive interventions provided at the clinical setting, effective coverage is lower among those in the lowest SE quintile and among people living in multidimensional poverty. Comparing 2006 and 2012, there is no evidence on gap reduction. Conclusion. While health protection has significantly increased in Mexico, thus reducing SE gaps, those gaps are still important in magnitude for effective coverage of preventive interventions. Source


Romieu I.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica
Research report (Health Effects Institute) | Year: 2012

The ESCALA* project (Estudio de Salud y Contaminación del Aire en Latinoamérica) is an HEI-funded study that aims to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in nine Latin American cities, using a common analytic framework to obtain comparable and updated information on the effects of air pollution on several causes of death in different age groups. This report summarizes the work conducted between 2006 and 2009, describes the methodologic issues addressed during project development, and presents city-specific results of meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses. The ESCALA project involved three teams of investigators responsible for collection and analysis of city-specific air pollution and mortality data from three different countries. The teams designed five different protocols to standardize the methods of data collection and analysis that would be used to evaluate the effects of air pollution on mortality (see Appendices B-F). By following the same protocols, the investigators could directly compare the results among cities. The analysis was conducted in two stages. The first stage included analyses of all-natural-cause and cause-specific mortality related to particulate matter < or = 10 pm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) and to ozone (O3) in cities of Brazil, Chile, and México. Analyses for PM10 and O3 were also stratified by age group and O3 analyses were stratified by season. Generalized linear models (GLM) in Poisson regression were used to fit the time-series data. Time trends and seasonality were modeled using natural splines with 3, 6, 9, or 12 degrees of freedom (df) per year. Temperature and humidity were also modeled using natural splines, initially with 3 or 6 df, and then with degrees of freedom chosen on the basis of residual diagnostics (i.e., partial autocorrelation function [PACF], periodograms, and a Q-Q plot) (Appendix H, available on the HEI Web site). Indicator variables for day-of-week and holidays were used to account for short-term cyclic fluctuations. To assess the association between exposure to air pollution and risk of death, the PM10 and O3 data were fit using distributed lag models (DLMs). These models are based on findings indicating that the health effects associated with air pollutant concentrations on a given day may accumulate over several subsequent days. Each DLM measured the cumulative effect of a pollutant concentration on a given day (day 0) and that day's contribution to the effect of that pollutant on multiple subsequent (lagged) days. For this study, exposure lags of up to 3, 5, and 10 days were explored. However, only the results of the DLMs using a 3-day lag (DLM 0-3) are presented in this report because we found a decreasing association with mortality in various age-cause groups for increasing lag effects from 3 to 5 days for both PM10 and O3. The potential modifying effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association of PM10 or O3 concentration and mortality was also explored in four cities: Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Santiago. The methodology for developing a common SES index is presented in the report. The second stage included meta-analyses and metaregression. During this stage, the associations between mortality and air pollution were compared among cities to evaluate the presence of heterogeneity and to explore city-level variables that might explain this heterogeneity. Meta-analyses were conducted to combine mortality effect estimates across cities and to evaluate the presence of heterogeneity among city results, whereas meta-regression models were used to explore variables that might explain the heterogeneity among cities in mortality risks associated with exposures to PM10 (but not to O3). The results of the mortality analyses are presented as risk percent changes (RPC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RPC is the increase in mortality risk associated with an increase of 10 microg/m3 in the 24-hour average concentration of PM10 or in the daily maximum 8-hour moving average concentration of O3. Most of the results for PM10 were positive and statistically significant, showing an increased risk of mortality with increased ambient concentrations. Results for O3 also showed a statistically significant increase in mortality in the cities with available data. With the distributed lag model, DLM 0-3, PM10 ambient concentrations were associated with an increased risk of mortality in all cities except Concepci6n and Temuco. In Mexico City and Santiago the RPC and 95% CIs were 1.02% (0.87 to 1.17) and 0.48% (0.35 to 0.61), respectively. PM10 was also significantly associated with increased mortality from cardiopulmonary, respiratory, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular-stroke, and chronic obstructive lung diseases (COPD) in most cities. The few nonsignificant effects generally were observed in the smallest cities (Concepción, Temuco, and Toluca). The percentage increases in mortality associated with ambient O3 concentrations were smaller than for those associated with PM10. All-natural-cause mortality was significantly related to O3 in Mexico City, Monterrey, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Increased mortality risks for some specific causes were also observed in these cities and in Santiago. In the analyses stratified by season, different patterns in mortality and O3 were observed for cold and warm seasons. Risk estimates for the warm season were larger and significant for several causes of death in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Risk estimates for the cold season were larger and significant for some causes of death in Mexico City, Monterrey, and Toluca.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED). Source


Objective. To describe the socioeconomic (SE) indicator developed for the analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (NHNS 2012) and its validation. Materials and methods. The SE indicator was generated imputing deciles of income level to the households on the NHNS 2012, using demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and based on the National Income and Expenditure Survey 2010. As a validation, distribution of different household characteristics related to SE status was described by predicted decile. Results. The resulting SE indicator adequately describes heterogeneity on standard socioeconomic variables, as schooling years of the head of household, income, access to services, and household assets. Conclusion. The socioeconomic heterogeneity captured by the proposed SE indicator allows identifying variability and gaps on health outcomes and programs coverage related to socioeconomic level. Source


Nigenda G.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2013

One third of the primary care units in the public system keeps being covered exclusively by interns. It is shown that with the resources available in the System for Social Protection in Health it is possible to hire graduate health personnel for all Ministry of Health rural units. It is necessary to modify the current legislation to impede an intern to be located in units without supervision of a graduate doctor. There is an urgent need for a reform of social service in medicine that responds both to the institutional modernization and to the increased capacity of the newly insured to demand high-quality services. Source


Obesity is a major risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, dyslipidemias, musculoskeletal diseases, and certain types of cancer. In Mexico the prevalence of overweight and obesity is 16.7% in preschool children, 26.2% in school children, and 30.9% in adolescents. For adults, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is 39.7 and 29.9%, respectively (ENSANUT 2006). Based on an analysis of the situation in Mexico, the need for a comprehensive, multisectoral, multilevel policy and an effective coordination policy have been clearly identified to achieve changes in eating patterns and physical activity to enable the prevention of chronic diseases and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity The combination of strategies and actions of the Mexican National Agreement for Healthy Nutrition proposed by the federal government proposes among its aims for 2012: a reversal in the prevalence of overweight and obesity for children aged 2-5 years in comparison with ENSANUT to stop the increasing prevalence in this condition for school children and adolescents (aged 5-19 years), and to slow down the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults. This challenge will require important regulatory actions, efficient and adaptable implementation, and participation of all sectors of society. Source

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