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Garcia-Luna C.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Rfm | Amaya M.I.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Rfm | Alvarez-Salas E.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Rfm | de Gortari P.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Rfm
Regulatory Peptides | Year: 2010

Food-restricted animals present metabolic adaptations that facilitate food-seeking behavior and decelerate energy utilization by reducing the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis function. Stress by dehydration induces an anorexic behavior in rats, loss of weight and reduced food intake when compared to ad libitum fed animals, however these alterations are accompanied by HPT axis changes such as increased serum thyrotropin levels and enhanced expression of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, which is considered as anorexigenic peptide. In contrast, a pair-fed group conformed by forced-food-restricted animals (FFR) (eating the exact same amount of food as dehydration-induced anorexic rats-DIA rats) present decreased TRH mRNA levels. NPY synthesis in the arcuate nucleus and orexin-expressing neurons from the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) are activated during food restriction. These brain structures project into PVN, suggesting that NPY and orexins are possible factors involved in TRHergic neuron activation in DIA rats. Leptin signaling is another likely factor to be involved in TRH differential expression. Therefore, to gain more insight into the regulation of the feeding behavior in the experimental models, we analyzed Y1, Y5, Ox1-R and Ob-Rb mRNA levels in PVN and prepro-orexin in LHA, since their signaling to the PVN might be altering TRH synthesis and feeding in DIA animals. Prepro-orexinergic cells were activated in FFR animals; Ox1-R and Y1 expression was reduced in FFR vs. controls or DIA group. Compensatory changes in PVN receptor expression of some feeding-related peptides in anorexic rats may alter TRHergic neural response to energy demands. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

de la Olvera F.P.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Rfm | Ortiz J.D.P.,University of Antioquia | Perez E.B.,Hospital Inflantil Of Mexico Fg
Revista Ciencias de la Salud | Year: 2010

In 2007, the Declaration of Mexico for Attention Deficit Hyperactivivity Disorder (ADHD) was developed by a group of specialists in mental health and neuroscience. This statement summarizes the most recent scientific information about the disorder. In 2009, during the III Latin-American Consensus on ADHD, the Cartagena's Declaration for ADHD was issued, which updates scientific information and promotes a campaign against ADHD stigma in society and schools. A draft document was developed before the meeting and reviewed by participants at the Consensus. This paper was checked by twenty-six experts from ten different countries from the region. Twenty-seven points of the statement about clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic topics were listed, based on newest scientific evidence for ADHD. The Cartagena Declaration for ADHD is the second call that Latino-America League for the Study of ADHD (LILAPETDAH) members performed as an organized and multinational group, to increase knowledge on clinical manifestations and treatment of ADHD and to promote joint efforts and social strategies aimed to reduce stigma of this disorder.

Juarez-Ortega M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Hernandez V.G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Arce-Paredes P.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Villanueva E.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Rfm | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Experimental Pathology | Year: 2015

Leprosy is a disease consisting of a spectrum of clinical, bacteriological, histopathological and immunological manifestations. Tuberculoid leprosy is frequently recognized as the benign polar form of the disease, while lepromatous leprosy is regarded as the malignant form. The different forms of leprosy depend on the genetic and immunological characteristics of the patient and on the characteristics of the leprosy bacillus. The malignant manifestations of lepromatous leprosy result from the mycobacterial-specific anergy that develops in this form of the disease. Using murine leprosy as a model of anergy in this study, we first induced the development of anergy to Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) in mice and then attempted to reverse it by the administration of dialysable leucocyte extracts (DLE) prepared from healthy (HLT), BCG-inoculated and MLM-inoculated mice. Mice inoculated with either MLM or BCG developed a robust cell-mediated immune response (CMI) that was temporary in the MLM-inoculated group and long-lasting in the BCG-inoculated group. DLE were prepared from the spleens of MLM- and BCG-inoculated mice at the peak of CMI. Independent MLM intradermally-inoculated groups were treated every other day with HLT-DLE, BCG-DLE or MLM-DLE, and the effect was documented for 98 days. DLE administered at a dose of 1.0 U (1 × 106 splenocytes) did not affect the evolution of leprosy, while DLE given at a dose of 0.1 U showed beneficial effects regardless of the DLE source. The dose but not the specificity of DLE was the determining factor for reversing anergy. © 2014 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

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