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Benitez-King G.,Laboratorio Of Neurofarmacologia | Valdes-Tovar M.,Laboratorio Of Neurofarmacologia | Trueta C.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Galvan-Arrieta T.,Laboratorio Of Neurofarmacologia | And 4 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2016

Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are highly inheritable chronic mental disorders with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Despite that many efforts had been made to characterize biomarkers in order to allow for biological testing for their diagnoses, these disorders are currently detected and classified only by clinical appraisal based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Olfactory neuroepithelium-derived neuronal precursors have been recently proposed as a model for biomarker characterization. Because of their peripheral localization, they are amenable to collection and suitable for being cultured and propagated in vitro. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells can be obtained by a non-invasive brush-exfoliation technique from neuropsychiatric patients and healthy subjects. Neuronal precursors isolated from these samples undergo in vitro the cytoskeletal reorganization inherent to the neurodevelopment process which has been described as one important feature in the etiology of both diseases. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge on microtubular organization in olfactory neurons of patients with SZ and with BD that may constitute specific cytoskeletal endophenotypes and their relation with alterations in L-type voltage-activated Ca2+ currents. Finally, the potential usefulness of neuronal precursors for pharmacological screening will be discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Laboratorio Of Neurofarmacologia and Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm
Type: | Journal: Molecular and cellular neurosciences | Year: 2016

Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD) are highly inheritable chronic mental disorders with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Despite that many efforts had been made to characterize biomarkers in order to allow for biological testing for their diagnoses, these disorders are currently detected and classified only by clinical appraisal based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Olfactory neuroepithelium-derived neuronal precursors have been recently proposed as a model for biomarker characterization. Because of their peripheral localization, they are amenable to collection and suitable for being cultured and propagated in vitro. Olfactory neuroepithelial cells can be obtained by a non-invasive brush-exfoliation technique from neuropsychiatric patients and healthy subjects. Neuronal precursors isolated from these samples undergo in vitro the cytoskeletal reorganization inherent to the neurodevelopment process which has been described as one important feature in the etiology of both diseases. In this paper, we will review the current knowledge on microtubular organization in olfactory neurons of patients with SZ and with BD that may constitute specific cytoskeletal endophenotypes and their relation with alterations in L-type voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents. Finally, the potential usefulness of neuronal precursors for pharmacological screening will be discussed.


Lozano-Verduzco I.,National Pedagogical University of Mexico | Marin-Navarrete R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Marin-Navarrete R.,Ibero-American University of Mexico | Romero-Mendoza M.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Tena-Suck A.,Ibero-American University of Mexico
American Journal of Men's Health | Year: 2015

Fundamental elements of hegemonic masculinity such as power and violence are analyzed through characteristics of 12-step programs and philosophy immersed in Mutual-Aid Residential Centers for Addiction Treatment (CRAMAAs). CRAMAAs are a culturally specific form of substance abuse treatment in Mexico that are characterized by control and violence. Fifteen interviews were carried out with men of varied sociodemographic characteristics, and who resided in at least two of these centers. Results identify that power is expressed through drug abuse and leads them to subsequent biopsychosocial degradation. Residency in CRAMAAs is motivated by women, but men do not seek the residency and are usually admitted unwillingly. Power through violence is carried out inside CRAMAAs where men are victims of abuse. From a 12-step philosophy, this violence is believed to lead them to a path of recovery but instead produces feelings of anger and frustration. The implications of these centers on Mexican public health are discussed. © 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.


Reynaga R.A.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Icaza M.E.M.-M.,INPRFM | Tapia A.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Rodas L.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Rey G.N.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm
Salud Mental | Year: 2015

Background Although craving is a controversial concept in alcoholism research, it is known that if an alcoholic can talk about the event using his own words, the probability of successful coping and prevention of relapse is bigger. However, little is known about such coping, and even less when it is articulated from the drinker's perspective. Objective To identify the coping mechanism to this event that causes physical and emotional responses similar to those of craving, identified with the own language of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Method The sample consisted of 192 individuals who participated in AA meetings for an average of ten years (SD=7.5). An empirical instrument was developed to measure coping (Kr=.86) and a two-phase conglomerate analysis was used to create categories to develop profiles. Results The analysis showed five coping profiles suggesting that AA members cope with the event as follow: 1. evading but looking for a direct solution (elusive-active conglomerate), 2. evading but retracting (elusive-liabilities conglomerate), 3. getting upset and doing nothing (emotional-passive conglomerate), 4. remembering and comparing their past life (revalorative conglomerate), and 5. denying (denier conglomerate). Discussion and conclusion Although the data are preliminary, they offer the opportunity to expand and specify how certain alcoholics solve a complex problem, such as craving. The information concurs with literature in the sense that this grouping of responses assumed those efforts that may be effective or not for the recovery process, for example, to prevent relapses in alcoholics who attend AA groups, so it raises an important research perspective.


Alvarez-Salas E.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Aceves C.,Direccion de Neurociencias | Anguiano B.,Direccion de Neurociencias | Uribe R.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

TRH synthesized in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates thyroid axis function and is also implicated in anorexigenic effects. Under energy deficit, animals present decreased PVNTRH expression and release, low TSH levels, and increased appetite. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) model allows insight into underlying mechanisms of feeding regulation. Animals drinking a 2.5% NaCl solution for 7 d present body weight reduction; despite their negative energy balance, they avoid food and have increased PVN TRH expression and TSH serum levels. These findings support an inhibiting role of PVN TRH in feeding control. We compared TRH expression by in situ hybridization in PVN subdivisions of 7-d dehydrated male rats to those of a pair-fed group (forced food-restricted) with similar metabolic changes than DIA, but motivated to eat, and to controls.We measured peripheral deiodinase activities, and expression and activity of medial basal hypothalamic type 2 deiodinase and pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II, to understand their regulating role in PVNTRH changes between food restriction and anorexia. TRH mRNA levels increased in anterior (aPVN) and medial-caudal subdivisions in DIA rats, whereas it decreased in medial PVN in both experimental groups. We confirmed the nonhypophysiotropic nature of aPVN TRHergic cells by injecting ip fluorogold tracer. Findings support a subspecialization of TRHergic hypophysiotrophic cells that responded differently between anorexic and food-restricted animals; also, that aPVN TRH participates in food intake regulation. Increased type 2 deiodinase activity seemed responsible for low medial PVN TRH synthesis, whereas increased medial basal hypothalamic pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II activity inDIA rats might counteract their high TRH release. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.


Marin-Navarrete R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Medina-Mora M.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Horigian V.E.,University of Miami | Salloum I.M.,University of Miami | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dual Diagnosis | Year: 2016

Objective: In Mexico, specialized treatment services for people with co-occurring disorders are limited within public health services, while private options are deemed too costly. More than 2,000 community-based residential care facilities have risen as an alternative and are the main source of treatment for individuals with substance use disorders; however, suboptimal practices within such facilities are common. Information on the clinical characteristics of patients receiving care in these facilities is scarce and capacity to provide high-quality care for co-occurring disorders is unknown. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of co-occurring disorders in patients receiving treatment for substance use in these community-based residential centers and to assess whether the presence of co-occurring disorders is associated with higher severity of substance use, psychiatric symptomatology, and other health risks. Methods: This study was conducted with 601 patients receiving treatment for substance use disorders at 30 facilities located in five Mexican states, recruited in 2013 and 2014. Patients were assessed with self-report measures on substance use, service utilization, suicidality, HIV risk behaviors, psychiatric symptomatology, and psychiatric disorder diagnostic criteria. Results: The prevalence of any co-occurring disorder in this sample was 62.6%. Antisocial personality disorder was the most prevalent (43.8%), followed by major depressive disorder (30.9%). The presence of a co-occurring disorder was associated with higher severity of psychiatric symptoms (aB = .496, SE = .050, p < .05); more days of substance use (aB = .219, SE = .019, p < .05); current suicidal ideation (aOR = 5.07, 95% CI [2.58, 11.17]; p < .05), plans (aOR = 5.17 95% CI [2.44, 12.73]; p < .05), and attempts (aOR = 6.43 95% CI [1.83, 40.78]; p < .05); more sexual risk behaviors; and more contact with professional services (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.26, 2.49], p < .05). Conclusions: Co-occurring disorders are highly prevalent in community-based residential centers in Mexico and are associated with significantly increased probability of other health risks. This highlights the need to develop care standards for this population and the importance of clinical research in these settings. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Arechiga-Ceballos F.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Alvarez-Salas E.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Matamoros-Trejo G.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Amaya M.I.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

Neuroendocrine axes adapt to nutrient availability. During fasting, the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) is reduced, whereas that of the hypothalamus- pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is increased. Overfeeding-induced hyperleptinemia during lactation may alter the regulatory set point of neuroendocrine axes and their adaptability to fasting in adulthood. Hyperleptinemia is developed in rodents by litter size reduction during lactation; adult rats from small litters become overweight, but their paraventricular nucleus (PVN) TRH synthesis is unchanged. It is unclear whether peptide expression still responds to nutrient availability. PVN corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expression has not been evaluated in this model. We analyzed adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to fasting-induced low leptin levels of reduced-litter adult rats. Offspring litters were reduced to 2-3/dam (earlyoverfed) or maintained at 8/dam (controls, C). At 10 weeks old, a subset of animals from each group was fasted for 48 h and leptin, corticosterone, and thyroid hormones serum levels were analyzed. In brain, expressions of leptin receptor, NPY and SOCS3, were evaluated in arcuate nucleus, and those of proTRH and proCRF in PVN by real-time PCR. ProTRH expression in anterior and medial PVN subcompartments was assayed by in situ hybridization. Earlyoverfed adults developed hyperphagia and excessive weight, together with decreased proTRH expression in anterior PVN, supporting the anorexigenic effects of TRH. Early-overfed rats presented low PVN proTRH synthesis, whereas fasting did not induce a further reduction. Fasting-induced stress was unable to increase corticosterone levels, contributing to reduced body weight loss in early-overfed rats. We concluded that early overfeeding impaired the adaptability of HPT and HPA axes to excess weight and fasting in adults. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.


Salazar-Juarez A.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Mendez S.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Jurado N.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Munguia A.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Anton B.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm
Salud Mental | Year: 2015

Introduction The classic pharmacopoeia used to attenuate cocaine dependence has proved a poor therapeutic efficacy. Based on this discouraging clinical and therapeutic panorama, since more than a decade, various researchers have developed new therapeutic strategies against cocaine addiction. These new experimental strategies are based on the structural design and synthesis of therapeutic vaccine formulations against cocaine addiction. Objective To describe the development and therapeutic evaluation of active immunization against cocaine. Method A bibliographical search was made using PubMed, using as descriptors the words "Cocaine" and "Vaccine." 155 articles were obtained which were used for these review 46 items. Results At preclinical level, active vaccination generates high levels of antibodies capable of recognizing with high specificity the cocaine present in the bloodstream, which attenuates the behavioral changes induced by different doses of cocaine. Discussion and conclusion Preclinical and clinical results have reinforced "proof of concept" active therapeutic vaccination to pharmacological control to cocaine use relapse in humans, but gave guidelines to the postulation and justification of synthesizing new models of anti-cocaine vaccines for human use. This experimental pharmacological strategy of "immunoprotective" nature has proven an effective treatment that significantly reduces drug-seeking behaviors, both at pre-clinical levels in the rodent model as well as in humans.


Ramirez L.R.-B.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Saracco-Alvarez R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Escamilla-Orozco R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm | Orellana A.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm
Salud Mental | Year: 2014

Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by complex symptoms and impaired cognitive function, which has been considered a core feature. Research into cognition and schizophrenia over the past years has taken several different approaches including psychometric assessments. Objective: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been proven useful in detecting cognitive impairment in patients with several forms of dementia. Our aim was to assess its validity as a screening instrument for cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients. Material and methods: One hundred patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited at the Schizophrenia Clinic of the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico. The MoCA and MMSE were used to assess cognitive functions in these patients. For the concurrent validity, the MoCA, MMSE and PANSS were used, and existing methods were utilized to determine reliability and validation. Results: According to the MMSE-education adjusted cut-off scores, only 8% of the patients in our sample were found with cognitive impairment in contrast with 69% of the total score obtained from the MoCA. The MoCA was tested for reliability with a Cronbach's alpha=0.71 similar to the one reported for MMSE (α=0.70) showing appropriate concurrent validity. Conclusions: The MoCA is a cognitive tool with adequate psychometric properties as a screening instrument for the detection of mild cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. It also promises to fill an urgent unmet need for a brief screening tool capable of detecting patients with MCI and schizophrenia.


PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria Ramon Of La Fuente Muniz Inprfm
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Endocrinology | Year: 2012

TRH synthesized in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates thyroid axis function and is also implicated in anorexigenic effects. Under energy deficit, animals present decreased PVN TRH expression and release, low TSH levels, and increased appetite. Dehydration-induced anorexia (DIA) model allows insight into underlying mechanisms of feeding regulation. Animals drinking a 2.5% NaCl solution for 7 d present body weight reduction; despite their negative energy balance, they avoid food and have increased PVN TRH expression and TSH serum levels. These findings support an inhibiting role of PVN TRH in feeding control. We compared TRH expression by in situ hybridization in PVN subdivisions of 7-d dehydrated male rats to those of a pair-fed group (forced food-restricted) with similar metabolic changes than DIA, but motivated to eat, and to controls. We measured peripheral deiodinase activities, and expression and activity of medial basal hypothalamic type 2 deiodinase and pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II, to understand their regulating role in PVN TRH changes between food restriction and anorexia. TRH mRNA levels increased in anterior (aPVN) and medial-caudal subdivisions in DIA rats, whereas it decreased in medial PVN in both experimental groups. We confirmed the nonhypophysiotropic nature of aPVN TRHergic cells by injecting ip fluorogold tracer. Findings support a subspecialization of TRHergic hypophysiotrophic cells that responded differently between anorexic and food-restricted animals; also, that aPVN TRH participates in food intake regulation. Increased type 2 deiodinase activity seemed responsible for low medial PVN TRH synthesis, whereas increased medial basal hypothalamic pyroglutamyl-aminopeptidase II activity in DIA rats might counteract their high TRH release.

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