Borges G.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Orozco R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Medina-Mora M.-E.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2011
Background: Scant and contradictory information prevails on the risk for common psychiatric disorders in Mexican immigrants to the United States (US). Extension of these results in larger samples is needed to better address treatment needs. This study investigates the association between migration to the US and development of depressive and anxiety symptoms in four urban areas of Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional survey in 2005 of individuals ages 12-65 from four cities formed a representative sample. Immigration-related experiences and prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms were recorded. Respondents were classified into three groups: (i) 'return migrants', (ii) 'relatives of migrants' and (iii) 'non-migrants' in the general population. Depression symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and anxiety was determined using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms were estimated as the proportion of the entire sample reporting the outcome. Crude and adjusted OR's were estimated in logistic regression models. Results: A total of 1630 respondents, represent a 70.5% response rate. Overall prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms were both approximately 16%. Increased risk for depressive symptoms (OR = 1.49 CI 95% = 1.01-2.20) among return migrants and depressive (OR = 1.48, CI 95% = 1.07-2.05) and anxiety symptoms (OR = 1.38, CI 95% = 1.08-1.78) in relatives of migrants was found in comparison to those without a migration experience. Limitations: Specific age and timing of migration experiences were not recorded. Conclusions: Migration experiences produce important levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms that could be linked to psychopathology. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Hernandez-Lopez L.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Cerda-Molina A.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Mondragon-Ceballos R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria
Theriogenology | Year: 2010
The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex steroids decreased with age in female black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Fecal concentrations of 17β-estradiol and progesterone (five samples/wk) and the number of ovulatory and anovulatory cycles were compared between adult (n = 3) and aged females (n = 2). All animals (regardless of age) had higher 17β-estradiol concentrations during the fertile than the nonfertile phases. However, during the fertile phase, concentrations of this hormone were significantly higher in adult females. Conversely, progesterone concentrations varied normally throughout the menstrual cycle in both adult and aged animals, with no significant difference between age classes. Similarly, there was no significant effect of age on the number of ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. In conclusion, we inferred that the aged female spider monkeys did not reach menopause, instead they remained in a perimenopausal period characterized by changes in fecal concentrations of ovarian steroids and hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovary axis activity, as well as irregular menstrual flows, for prolonged intervals. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria, University of Texas at Austin and University of California at Davis
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Child: care, health and development | Year: 2016
There is a critical need to document the mental health effects of immigration policies and practices on children vulnerable to parental deportation. Few studies capture the differential experiences produced by U.S. citizen-childrens encounters with immigration enforcement, much less in ways that analyse mental health outcomes alongside the psychosocial contexts within which those outcomes arise.We explore the psychosocial dimensions of depression in U.S. citizen-children with undocumented Mexican parents to examine differences between citizen-children affected and not affected by parental deportation. An exploratory mixed-method design was used to integrate a quantitative measure of depression symptoms (CDI-2) within qualitative data collected with 48 citizen-children aged 8 to 15 with and without experiences of parental deportation.Stressors elicited by citizen-children in the qualitative interview included an inability to communicate with friends, negative perceptions of Mexico, financial struggles, loss of supportive school networks, stressed relation with parent(s) and violence. Fifty percent of citizen-children with probable depression - regardless of experiences with parental deportation - cited stressed relation with parents, compared to 9% without depression. In contrast, themes of loss of supportive school network and violence were mentioned almost exclusively by citizen-children with probable depression and affected by parental deportation.While citizen-children who suffer parental deportation experience the most severe consequences associated with immigration enforcement, our findings also suggest that the burden of mental health issues extends to those children concomitantly affected by immigration enforcement policies that target their undocumented parents.
PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria, University of Rochester, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Alcohol Research Group and University of Oslo
Type: | Journal: Psychological medicine | Year: 2016
No review has used a meta-analytic approach to estimate common odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of acute use of alcohol (AUA) on suicide attempts. We aim to report the results of the first meta-analysis of controlled epidemiological studies on AUA and suicide attempt.The English-language literature on Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar was searched for original articles and critical review on AUA and suicide attempt (period 1996-2015). Studies had to report an OR estimate for this association. Common ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from random effects in meta-analyses for any AUA and two levels of alcohol use on suicide attempt were calculated.In all, seven studies provided OR estimates for the likelihood of suicide attempt by AUA, compared with those who did not drink alcohol. Studies used case-control (n 3) and case-crossover designs (n 4). Meta-analysis revealed a common OR of 6.97 (95% CI 4.77-10.17) for any AUA. Using four studies, low levels of acute drinking resulted in an OR of 2.71 (95% CI 1.56-4.71) and high levels had an OR of 37.18 (95% CI 17.38-79.53).AUA is associated with increased likelihood of a suicide attempt, particularly at high doses. Such data should be incorporated into estimates of the burden of disease associated with alcohol use, which are currently limited by a consideration of only alcohols chronic effects. Future research should focus on the mechanisms through which AUA confers risk for attempt.
Leon-Olea M.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Martyniuk C.J.,University of New Brunswick |
Orlando E.F.,University of Maryland University College |
Ottinger M.A.,University of Maryland University College |
And 4 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2014
In the last few years, it has become clear that a wide variety of environmental contaminants have specific effects on neuroendocrine systems in fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. While it is beyond the scope of this review to provide a comprehensive examination of all of these neuroendocrine disruptors, we will focus on select representative examples. Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulate in neuroendocrine areas of the brain that directly regulate GnRH neurons, thereby altering the expression of genes downstream of GnRH signaling. Organochlorine pesticides can also agonize or antagonize hormone receptors, adversely affecting crosstalk between neurotransmitter systems. The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls are varied and in many cases subtle. This is particularly true for neuroedocrine and behavioral effects of exposure. These effects impact sexual differentiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and other neuroendocrine systems regulating the thyroid, metabolic, and stress axes and their physiological responses. Weakly estrogenic and anti-androgenic pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, phytochemicals, and the fungicide vinclozolin can lead to severe and widespread neuroendocrine disruptions in discrete brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus, resulting in behavioral changes in a wide range of species. Behavioral features that have been shown to be affected by one or more these chemicals include cognitive deficits, heightened anxiety or anxiety-like, sociosexual, locomotor, and appetitive behaviors. Neuroactive pharmaceuticals are now widely detected in aquatic environments and water supplies through the release of wastewater treatment plant effluents. The antidepressant fluoxetine is one such pharmaceutical neuroendocrine disruptor. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that can affect multiple neuroendocrine pathways and behavioral circuits, including disruptive effects on reproduction and feeding in fish. There is growing evidence for the association between environmental contaminant exposures and diseases with strong neuroendocrine components, for example decreased fecundity, neurodegeneration, and cardiac disease. It is critical to consider the timing of exposures of neuroendocrine disruptors because embryonic stages of central nervous system development are exquisitely sensitive to adverse effects. There is also evidence for epigenetic and transgenerational neuroendocrine disrupting effects of some pollutants. We must now consider the impacts of neuroendocrine disruptors on reproduction, development, growth and behaviors, and the population consequences for evolutionary change in an increasingly contaminated world. This review examines the evidence to date that various so-called neuroendocrine disruptors can induce such effects often at environmentally-relevant concentrations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Martinez M.B.A.,Centro Universitario Of Ciencias Of La Salud |
Lamotte B.V.,Centro Universitario Of Ciencias Of La Salud |
Santoncini C.U.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011
Objective: Determine the relationship between the variables of self-esteem (SE), body dissatisfaction (BD), and body mass index (BMI) in a continuum of risky eating behaviors (REB) that ranges from normal behavior to the risk of eating disorders (ED), thus facilitating early detection of adolescents with ED symptomatology and the degree to which such variables have an influence. Methods: A total of 1 982 young women aged 15-19 were selected through stratified random sampling. Self-esteem (Pope, McHale, and Craighead scale), body dissatisfaction (Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale), and body mass index were measured. A brief REB questionnaire was administered. Three categories of REB were defined: no risk, moderate risk, and high risk. A multiple regression analysis was performed. Results: A direct relationship was found between risk of REB and BD, with significant differences between the groups (P < 0.001): no risk (83.6% of sample), 54.1% had BD; moderate risk (11.9% of sample), 84.8% had BD; and high risk (4.5% of sample), 89.9% had BD. There were significant differences in SE and BMI only between the group with no risk and each of the risk groups. Self-esteem played a role in predicting REB in all the regression models evaluated, whereas BMI did not. Conclusions: It is essential to identify adolescents at moderate risk of REB who have prodromic features of ED such as low SE and BD. When these features occur simultaneously, they can mediate a negative effect of BMI on REB.
Hamann S.,Copenhagen University |
Herrera-Perez J.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Zeuthen T.,Copenhagen University |
Alvarez-Leefmans F.J.,Wright State University
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2010
Water transport by the Na+-K+-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) was studied in confluent cultures of pigmented epithelial (PE) cells from the ciliary body of the fetal human eye. Interdependence among water, Na+ and Cl fluxes mediated by NKCC1 was inferred from changes in cell water volume, monitored by intracellular self-quenching of the fluorescent dye calcein. Isosmotic removal of external Cl or Na+ caused a rapid efflux of water from the cells, which was inhibited by bumetanide (10 μm). When returned to the control solution there was a rapid water influx that required the simultaneous presence of external Na+ and Cl. The water influx could proceed uphill, against a transmembrane osmotic gradient, suggesting that energy contained in the ion fluxes can be transferred to the water flux. The influx of water induced by changes in external [Cl] saturated in a sigmoidal fashion with a Km of 60 mm, while that induced by changes in external [Na+] followed first order kinetics with a Km of about 40 mm. These parameters are consistent with ion transport mediated by NKCC1. Our findings support a previous investigation, in which we showed water transport by NKCC1 to be a result of a balance between ionic and osmotic gradients. The coupling between salt and water transport in NKCC1 represents a novel aspect of cellular water homeostasis where cells can change their volume independently of the direction of an osmotic gradient across the membrane. This has relevance for both epithelial and symmetrical cells.Cell volume control is fundamental for cell survival. Cells have evolved mechanisms for maintaining their volume constant. These mechanisms involve the movement of solutes and water across the plasma membrane through specialized proteins. The water within a cell ultimately determines its volume and has been assumed to cross the cell membrane exclusively through channels called aquaporins. We show that water also crosses the membrane carried by NKCC1, a membrane protein belonging to the Na+-K+-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) family. This membrane protein transports 1 sodium, 1 potassium and 2 chloride ions together with a large number of water molecules per cycle. A key finding is that NKCC1 transports water uphill, against an osmotic gradient. These observations increase our knowledge of how cells and tissues handle water, and are important for understanding medical conditions like brain oedema, intracranial hypertension, glaucoma and airway hydration disorders. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Physiological Society.
Borges G.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Zamora B.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Garcia J.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Orozco R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2015
Home to about 15 million people, the US-Mexico border area has suffered stresses from increased border security efforts and a costly drug war in Mexico. Whether immigration patterns add to increasing levels of anxiety for the Mexican population and the Mexican-origin individuals living in the US-Mexico border and near the border is unknown. We used the US-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (UMSARC), a cross-sectional survey (2011-2013) of individuals living in border and non-border cities of the US (n=2336) and Mexico (n=2460). In Mexico respondents were asked if they ever migrated to the US or have a family member living in the US (328) or not (2124), while in the US respondents were asked if they were born in Mexico (697), born in the US with no US-born parents (second generation, 702) or born in the US with at least one US-born parent (third generation, 932). The prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of anxiety using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (>=10) were obtained. Mexicans with no migrant experience had a prevalence of anxiety and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) within the last month of 6.7% (PR=reference), followed by Mexicans with migration experience of 13.1% (PR=1.8), Mexican-born respondents living in the US of 17.3% (PR=2.6), US born Mexican-Americans of 2nd generation of 18.6% (PR=3.3) and finally US born 3rd+generation of 25.9% (PR=3.8). Results help to identify regions and migration patterns at high risk for anxiety and may help to unravel causal mechanisms that underlie this risk. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Genetic diversity in Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) at the Reserva de la Biosfera Los Tuxtlas (Veracruz, Mexico) [Diversidad genética en grupos de monos aulladores de manto (Alouatta palliata mexicana) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Los Tuxtlas (Veracruz, México)]
Jasso-del Toro C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Marquez-Valdelamar L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Mondragon-Ceballos R.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria < >
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad | Year: 2016
Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to Mexican mantled monkey (Alouatta palliata mexicana), which have reduced drastically the size of its natural populations. This reduction causes a negative impact on its genetic diversity, which in turns threatens the viability of its remnant populations. In this study, genetic diversity is determined in 4 groups of howler monkeys inhabiting continuous and 3 in fragmented forest sections at Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. DNA was extracted from fecal samples, and 13 microsatellite loci were analyzed, which resulted in 8 polymorphic loci. Our results suggest low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.14, He = 0.23 and Na = 2.88) and low genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.043, p = .01) between continuous and fragmented habitats. We found no significant differences between groups or habitat type in any of the genetic diversity parameters analyzed. The inbreeding index was positive for each group and significantly different from zero in continuous and fragmented habitats, indicating heterozygosity deficiency in both ecological conditions. We discuss the results in relation to colonization history of howler monkeys and forest fragmentation. © 2016 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Biología
Lara M.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Berenzon S.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Garcia F.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
Medina-Mora M.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria |
And 3 more authors.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012
Objective: To study the prevalence of, severity of, and risk factors for depressive symptoms in a probabilistic sample of Mexican adolescent mothers. Methods: A sample of adolescents aged 13-19 years, drawn from a national survey, was interviewed in relation to severity of depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) 16-23 and CES-D ≥ 24] and pregnancy or parenting status. Results: Depressive symptoms (CES-D 16-23) ranged from 2.3% in the first postpartum semester to 32.5% in the second trimester of pregnancy; high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 24) ranged from 3.0% in the second postpartum semester to 24.7% in mothers of an infant more than 1 year old. Significant differences between groups were in mothers in the second gestation trimester, who had significantly more symptoms than those who had never been pregnant and those in the first postpartum semester. In those with high symptomatology, no significant differences were observed between groups. A multinomial logistic regression model used to estimate the likelihood of depression found increased risk of depressive symptoms (CES-D 16-23) in those without a partner in the first, second, or third trimester of pregnancy; in the second postpartum semester; and with a child over the age of 1 year. Increased risk of high symptomatology (CES-D ≥ 24) was found in those not in school or with a child over the age of 1 year. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms entail an enormous burden of disease for the mother and mental health risks to the infant; mothers should therefore be targeted in prevention and intervention actions.