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The management model based on risk prevention has become a major influence in shaping policies for transfusion safety. There are approximately sixty interactions between the health worker and the patient during the transfusion process, representing the number of times where you have the opportunity to make a mistake. We present an analysis of the weaknesses of the National Blood System, with particular attention to the haemovigilance donor and patient. The proposals include the implementation of the National Blood containing the need to establish from the National Blood Safety, significant changes in the regulatory framework and the internal regulations of the Ministry of Health, the CNTS and COFEPRIS. Is required to promote and coordinate the collection of accurate information from the committees of transfusion medicine, which will be accompanied by an initial diagnosis from the National Survey of Blood. Requires notice to other forms of funding to ensure the viability of the projects operating blood bank. Finally, as a strategic resource, the blood is of public, so access should not be restricted.


Portillo W.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Antonio-Cabrera E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Camacho F.J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Diaz N.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Perinatologia | Paredes R.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2013

Non-copulating (NC) males are those animals that do not mate in spite of repeated testing with sexually receptive females. They have been observed in several species including rats and mice. The present experiment was designed to perform a detailed behavioral characterization of NC male mice. Thus, we evaluated their sexual incentive motivation for a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male, olfactory preference for volatile and non-volatile odors from females or males, and olfactory discrimination between female and male volatile odors and food related odors (milk versus vinegar). We compared the activity of the accessory olfactory system (AOS) in copulating (C) and NC males in response to estrous bedding using the induction of Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) as a measure of neuronal activation. We also determined if estradiol or dopamine treatment could induce sexual behavior in NC males. Finally, we compared the testis weight and the number of penile spines in C, NC, and gonadectomized males. In the sexual incentive motivation test C males spend significantly more time in the female incentive zone than in the male incentive zone. On the other hand, NC males spend the same amount of time in both incentive zones. In tests of olfactory preference, NC males spent less time investigating estrous odors than C males. As well, NC males discriminate urine from conspecifics but they spend less time smelling these odors than C males. In addition, no increase in Fos expression is observed in NC males when they are exposed to odors from estrous females. Our data also suggest that the deficits observed in NC males are not due to lower circulating levels of gonadal hormones, because estradiol supplementation does not induce sexual behavior in these animals, and their testis weight and the number of penile spines are normal. The results suggest that NC males are not sexually motivated by the receptive females and their odors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Estrada-Gutierrez G.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Estrada-Gutierrez G.,Instituto Nacional Of Perinatologia | Cappello R.E.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Mishra N.,Virginia Commonwealth University | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to determine the following: (1) whether matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is increased in systemic vessels of preeclamptic women, (2) whether this increase might be mediated by neutrophils, and (3) whether MMP-1 could be responsible for vascular dysfunction. Omental arteries and plasma were collected from healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Omental arteries were evaluated for gene and protein expression of MMP-1, collagen type 1α, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and vascular reactivity to MMP-1. Gene and protein expression levels were also evaluated in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) co-cultured with activated neutrophils, reactive oxygen species, or tumor necrosis factor α. Vessel expression of MMP-1 and circulating MMP-1 levels were increased in preeclamptic women, whereas vascular expression of collagen or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 were down-regulated or unchanged. In cultured VSMCs, the imbalance in collagen-regulating genes of preeclamptic vessels was reproduced by treatment with neutrophils, tumor necrosis factor α, or reactive oxygen species. Chemotaxis studies with cultured cells revealed that MMP-1 promoted recruitment of neutrophils via vascular smooth muscle release of interleukin-8. Furthermore, MMP-1 induced vasoconstriction via protease-activated receptor-1, whose expression was significantly increased in omental arteries of preeclamptic women and in VSMCs co-cultured with neutrophils. Collectively, these findings disclose a novel role for MMP-1 as a mediator of vasoconstriction and vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Diaz-Martinez N.E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Tamariz E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Tamariz E.,University of Veracruz | Diaz N.F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2013

Cell therapy in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) is effective after intrastriatal grafting of dopamine (DA) neurons, whereas intranigral transplantation of dopaminergic cells does not cause consistent behavioral recovery. One strategy to promote axonal growth of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is degradation of inhibitory components such as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPG). An alternative is the guidance of DA axons by chemotropic agents. Semaphorins 3A and 3C enhance axonal growth of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived dopaminergic neurons in vitro, while Semaphorin 3C also attracts them. We asked whether intranigral transplantation of DA neurons, combined with either degradation of CSPG or with grafts of Semaphorin 3-expressing cells, towards the striatum, is effective in establishing a new nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in rats with unilateral depletion of DA neurons. We found depolarization-induced DA release in dorsal striatum, DA axonal projections from SN to striatum, and concomitant behavioral improvement in Semaphorin 3-treated animals. These effects were absent in animals that received intranigral transplants combined with Chondroitinase ABC treatment, although partial degradation of CSPG was observed. These results are evidence that Semaphorin 3-directed long-distance axonal growth of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in behavioral improvement, is possible in adult diseased brains. © The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy.


Henn B.C.,Harvard University | Schnaas L.,Instituto Nacional Of Perinatologia | Ettinger A.S.,Harvard University | Ettinger A.S.,Yale University | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2012

Background: Most toxicologic studies focus on a single agent, although this does not reflect real-world scenarios in which humans are exposed to multiple chemicals. Objectives: We prospectively studied manganese-lead interactions in early childhood to examine whether manganese-lead coexposure is associated with neurodevelopmental deficiencies that are more severe than expected based on effects of exposure to each metal alone. Methods: Four hundred fifty-five children were enrolled at birth in an longitudinal cohort study in Mexico City, provided blood samples, and were followed until 36 months of age. We measured lead and manganese at 12 and 24 months and assessed neurodevelopment at 6-month intervals from 12 to 36 months of age using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Results: Mean (± SD) blood concentrations at 12 and 24 months were, respectively, 24.7 ± 5.9 μg/L and 21.5 ± 7.4 μg/L for manganese and 5.1 ± 2.6 μg/dL and 5.0 ± 2.9 μg/dL for lead. Mixed-effects models, including Bayley scores at five time points, showed a significant interaction over time: highest manganese quintile × continuous lead; mental development score, β = -1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.18, -0.37]; psychomotor development score, β = -0.92 (95% CI: -1.76, -0.09). Slopes for the estimated 12-month lead effect on 18-month mental development and 24-through 36-month psychomotor development scores were steeper for children with high manganese than for children with midrange manganese levels. Conclusions: We observed evidence of synergism between lead and manganese, whereby lead toxicity was increased among children with high manganese coexposure. Findings highlight the importance of understanding health effects of mixed exposures, particularly during potentially sensitive developmental stages such as early childhood.

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