Villa Insurgentes, Mexico
Villa Insurgentes, Mexico

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Villar L.,Industrial University of Santander | Dayan G.H.,Sanofi S.A. | Arredondo-Garcia J.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Rivera D.M.,Organizacion Para El Desarrollo y la Investigacion Salud en Honduras ODISH | And 16 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

immunogenicity subgroup of 1944 children had seropositive status for one or more dengue serotypes. In the per-protocol population, there were 176 VCD cases (with 11,793 person-years at risk) in the vaccine group and 221 VCD cases (with 5809 person-years at risk) in the control group, for a vaccine efficacy of 60.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.0 to 68.0). In the intention-to-treat population (those who received at least one injection), vaccine efficacy was 64.7% (95% CI, 58.7 to 69.8). Serotype-specific vaccine efficacy was 50.3% for serotype 1, 42.3% for serotype 2, 74.0% for serotype 3, and 77.7% for serotype 4. Among the severe VCD cases, 1 of 12 was in the vaccine group, for an intention-to-treat vaccine efficacy of 95.5%. Vaccine efficacy against hospitalization for dengue was 80.3%. The safety profile for the CYD-TDV vaccine was similar to that for placebo, with no marked difference in rates of adverse events. Conclusions The CYD-TDV dengue vaccine was efficacious against VCD and severe VCD and led to fewer hospitalizations for VCD in five Latin American countries where dengue is endemic. (Funded by Sanofi Pasteur; number, NCT01374516.) Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Hadinegoro S.R.,University of Indonesia | Arredondo-Garcia J.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Capeding M.R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Deseda C.,Caribbean Travel Medicine Clinic | And 19 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: A candidate tetravalent dengue vaccine is being assessed in three clinical trials involving more than 35,000 children between the ages of 2 and 16 years in Asian-Pacific and Latin American countries. We report the results of long-term follow-up interim analyses and integrated efficacy analyses. Methods: We are assessing the incidence of hospitalization for virologically confirmed dengue as a surrogate safety end point during follow-up in years 3 to 6 of two phase 3 trials, CYD14 and CYD15, and a phase 2b trial, CYD23/57. We estimated vaccine efficacy using pooled data from the first 25 months of CYD14 and CYD15. Results: Follow-up data were available for 10,165 of 10,275 participants (99%) in CYD14 and 19,898 of 20,869 participants (95%) in CYD15. Data were available for 3203 of the 4002 participants (80%) in the CYD23 trial included in CYD57. During year 3 in the CYD14, CYD15, and CYD57 trials combined, hospitalization for virologically confirmed dengue occurred in 65 of 22,177 participants in the vaccine group and 39 of 11,089 participants in the control group. Pooled relative risks of hospitalization for dengue were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 1.24) among all participants, 1.58 (95% CI, 0.83 to 3.02) among those under the age of 9 years, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.86) among those 9 years of age or older. During year 3, hospitalization for severe dengue, as defined by the independent data monitoring committee criteria, occurred in 18 of 22,177 participants in the vaccine group and 6 of 11,089 participants in the control group. Pooled rates of efficacy for symptomatic dengue during the first 25 months were 60.3% (95% CI, 55.7 to 64.5) for all participants, 65.6% (95% CI, 60.7 to 69.9) for those 9 years of age or older, and 44.6% (95% CI, 31.6 to 55.0) for those younger than 9 years of age. Conclusions: Although the unexplained higher incidence of hospitalization for dengue in year 3 among children younger than 9 years of age needs to be carefully monitored during long-term follow-up, the risk among children 2 to 16 years of age was lower in the vaccine group than in the control group. Copyright © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Amabile-Cuevas C.F.,Fundacion Lusara | Arredondo-Garcia J.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Cruz A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Rosas I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2010

Aims: To assess the different phenotypes and mechanisms of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in clinical and environmental isolates of Escherichia coli. Methods and Results: We compared FQ-resistant E. coli isolates, measuring minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ciprofloxacin, along with susceptibility to other antibiotics. We also searched for the presence of efflux pumps, using efflux inhibitors, and for plasmid-borne FQ-resistance by PCR. We found that, aside from the higher FQ-resistance prevalence among clinical strains, environmental ones resist much lower concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Efflux pumps mediate fluoroquinolone resistance as frequently among environmental isolates than in clinical strains. Plasmid-borne qnrA genes were not detected in any resistant strain. Conclusions: Environmental FQ-resistant strains may have a nonclinical origin and/or a selective pressure different from the clinical use of FQs. Significance and Impact of the Study: The identification of the source of low-level FQ-resistant strains (ciprofloxacin MIC c. 8 μg ml-1) in the environment could be important to curb the rapid emergence and spread of FQ-resistance in clinical settings, as these strains can easily become fully resistant to FQ concentrations achievable in fluids and tissues during therapy. © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Luque-Contreras D.,Autonomous University of Coahuila | Carvajal K.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Toral-Rios D.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Franco-Bocanegra D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Campos-Pena V.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suarez
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2014

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major neurodegenerative disease affecting the elderly. Clinically, it is characterized by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by the presence of extracellular β -amyloid (A β) deposited as neuritic plaques (NP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) made of abnormal and hyperphosphorylated tau protein. These lesions are capable of generating the neuronal damage that leads to cell death and cognitive failure through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Evidence indicates the critical role of A β metabolism in prompting the oxidative stress observed in AD patients. However, it has also been proposed that oxidative damage precedes the onset of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including amyloid- β deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, vascular malfunction, metabolic syndrome, and cognitive decline. This paper provides a brief description of the three main proteins associated with the development of the disease (A β, tau, and ApoE) and describes their role in the generation of oxidative stress. Finally, we describe the mitochondrial alterations that are generated by A β and examine the relationship of vascular damage which is a potential prognostic tool of metabolic syndrome. In addition, new therapeutic approaches targeting ROS sources and metabolic support were reported. © 2014 Diana Luque-Contreras et al.

Rodriguez-Romero A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hernandez-Santoyo A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Fuentes-Silva D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Palomares L.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2014

Endogenous glycosylated Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis is an important latex allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies from patients who suffer from latex allergy. The carbohydrate moieties of Hev b 2 constitute a potentially important IgE-binding epitope that could be responsible for its cross-reactivity. Here, the structure of the endogenous isoform II of Hev b 2 that exhibits three post-translational modifications, including an N-terminal pyro-glutamate and two glycosylation sites at Asn27 and at Asn314, is reported from two crystal polymorphs. These modifications form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be one of the binding sites for IgE. A structure is also proposed for the most important N-glycan present in this protein as determined by digestion with specific enzymes. To analyze the role of the carbohydrate moieties in IgE antibody binding and in human basophil activation, the glycoallergen was enzymatically deglycosylated and evaluated. Time-lapse automated video microscopy of basophils stimulated with glycosylated Hev b 2 revealed basophil activation and degranulation. Immunological studies suggested that carbohydrates on Hev b 2 represent an allergenic IgE epitope. In addition, a dimer was found in each asymmetric unit that may reflect a regulatory mechanism of this plant defence protein. © 2014 International Union of Crystallography.

Majluf-Cruz A.,Instituto Mexicano Del Seguro Social | Nieto-Martinez S.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2011

Hereditary angioedema is caused by a C1-inhibitor deficiency. It is a life-threatening disease. Its management includes treating acute attacks, short-term prophylaxis, and long-termprophylaxis. We report our experience with nadroparin for the short-term prophylaxis and treatment of angioedema attacks. We indicated treatment with nadroparin 0.3-0.6 mL SC 20 min after the onset of prodromes, then every 8-12 h for 1 day; short-term prophylaxis with 0.3-0.6 mL 1 h before a triggering event and then every 12-24 h for 1 more day. For children, treatment included 0.3 mL SC 20 min after the onset of prodromes, then every 12-24 h for 1 day; short-term prophylaxis was 0.3 mL 1 h before a triggering event and 1 more dose after 24 h. For the treatment, a complete response was considered when nadroparin totally stopped an acute attack within 2 h after injection. Partial response was considered if after 2 h analgesics and/or other therapy were required. Failure was established if after 4 h no response was obtained and fresh frozen plasma and other in-patient measures were required. For short-term prophylaxis, only complete responses and failures were considered. We included 29 adults and 5 children. Functional C1-inhibitor and C4 levels rose after nadroparin. We recorded 256 treatments (89.8% complete responses, 8.2% partial responses, and 1.9% failures), and 102 short-term prophylactic regimens (90.2% complete responses, and 9.8% failures). We found 38 mild adverse events without severe hemorrhagic episodes. If our results are reproduced subsequently, nadroparin may be an alternative for the treatment and short-term prophylaxis of angioedema attacks. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fibrous or desmoid tumors are grouped under the term fibromatosis; there are several groups; the pediatric aggressive form is rare, especially the pelvis and/or hip presentation. This causes a variable degree of destruction of the surrounding tissues. It is a diagnosis by exclusion and histopathologic testing; treatment is always surgical and conservative treatment is indicated only for special locations and/or patient conditions. This article reports a case of aggressive pediatric hip fibromatosis with severe joint destruction, as well as the work-up and management protocol followed at the National Pediatrics Institute Pediatric Orthopedics Service to approach bone tumors. No cases similar to this one have been reported.

Gonzalez Garay A.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Reveiz L.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Velasco Hidalgo L.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Solis Galicia C.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant (an active agent that keeps pulmonary alveoli open and facilitates the entry of air to the lungs, thus improving the oxygenation of the newborn).A number of interventions such as pulmonary surfactant and prenatal corticosteroids are used to prevent RDS. Ambroxol has been studied as a potential agent to prevent RDS, but effectiveness and safety has yet to be evaluated.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of giving ambroxol to pregnant women who are at risk of preterm birth, for preventing neonatal RDS.SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 November 2013), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 11),Embase (1988 to November 2013), MEDLINE (PubMed 1970 to November 2013), LILACS (1982 to November 2013), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (November 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies.SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the administration of ambroxol given to pregnant women at risk of preterm birth versus placebo, antenatal corticosteroids (betamethasone or dexamethasone), or no treatment.We did not identify any trials comparing ambroxol with dexamethasone (corticosteroid) in this review. Nor did we identify any trials comparing ambroxol combined with corticosteroid versus corticosteroid alone, or placebo/no treatment.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and trial quality. Two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy.MAIN RESULTS: We included 14 studies (in 18 trial reports), involving 1047 pregnant women at risk of preterm birth with 1077 newborns. However, three of the included studies did not report on this review's outcomes of interest. We carried out two main comparisons: ambroxol versus antenatal corticosteroids (betamethasone); and ambroxol versus placebo or no treatment. Seven RCTs provided data for our comparison of ambroxol versus corticosteroid (betamethasone) and two trials contributed data to our comparison of ambroxol compared to placebo or no treatment.The included studies were generally judged as having either 'low' risk of bias or 'unclear' risk of bias (because the trial reports provided insufficient details about methods of sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding). Primary outcomesThere was no clear evidence of a difference in the incidence of RDS among newborns born to women who received ambroxol when compared to newborns of women who were given the corticosteroid, betamethasone (risk ratio (RR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.07, seven RCTs, 728 women/758 newborns, moderate quality evidence) or placebo/no treatment (average RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.20, two studies, 204 women/204 newborns,T2= 0.07; I(2)= 53%, low-quality evidence). Results were imprecise and consistent with appreciable benefit as well as negligible effect.Similarly, there was no clear evidence of a difference in the rates of perinatal mortality between the group of women who received ambroxol and women in the corticosteroid (betamethasone) group (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.12, six studies, 648 women/657 newborns, moderate quality evidence) or the placebo/no treatment group (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.19 to 1.98, one study, 116 women/116 newborns, low-quality evidence).In terms of maternal adverse effects, there was no clear differences (in nausea or vomiting) between those women who received ambroxol compared to either those women who received corticosteroids (betamethasone) (average RR 3.45; 95% CI 0.34 to 35.51, three studies, 305 women, T(2)= 2.82; I(2)= 67%, very low-quality evidence), or women who received placebo or no treatment (RR 1.79; 95% CI 0.45 to 7.13, one study, 116 women, low-quality evidence). No other adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, gastric irritation and headache) were reported in the included studies. Secondary outcomesFor the review's secondary outcomes, none of the included studies reported on the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis or rate of maternal mortality.One small trial (involving 88 women) comparing ambroxol with placebo or no treatment, reported no difference between groups in terms of the need for mechanical ventilation in the neonate (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.21, 88 women/88 babies, low-quality evidence) or the administration of pulmonary surfactant (RR 1.19; 95% CI 0.61 to 2.30, one RCT, 88 women/88 babies, low-quality evidence).AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review is based on very low to moderate quality evidence from 14 small trials (many are published in the form of conference abstracts with minimal methodological details provided). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the practice of giving ambroxol to women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal RDS, perinatal mortality and adverse effects. More research is needed in order to fully evaluate the benefits and risks of this intervention.

Gamez-Gonzalez L.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Murata C.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Munoz-Ramirez M.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Yamazaki-Nakashimada M.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Recently, there have been increasing reports of severe forms of Kawasaki disease (KD) associated with shock that have been managed in pediatric intensive care units. It has been suggested that KD is more severe in the Hispanic population. We conducted a study to determine the frequency of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) in our population and compared characteristics between patients with KD without shock and patients with KDSS. Data from 214 patients with KD treated in a tertiary pediatric hospital were collected during a 12-year period. We compared clinical and laboratory features of KD patients without shock and KDSS patients. Of 214 consecutive patients with KD, 11 (5 %) met the definition for KDSS. All of these patients received fluid resuscitation, seven (64 %) required inotropic treatment, and six (54 %), ventilatory support. On admission, seven of these patients (64 %) had an incomplete presentation of the disease, whereas in the group of patients without shock, the relative frequency of an incomplete presentation was 29 %. Twenty percent (3/11) of patients with KDSS presented giant coronary aneurysms versus none of 203 KD patients without shock (p = 0.001); myocardial infarction, 27 % (3/11), versus 1 % (2/203) (p = 0.001); and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance, 60 % (6/11), versus 12 % (24/203). Gastrointestinal manifestations in the acute phase occurred in 91 % of KDSS patients versus 30 % patients without shock (p = 0.001). Conclusion. Patients with KD presenting in shock seem to have an increase in gastrointestinal manifestations, incomplete presentation, IVIG resistance, and worse cardiac outcomes. Larger, prospective, multicentre studies should be carried out to corroborate these findings. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gomez-Lira G.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Mendoza-Torreblanca J.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Granados-Rojas L.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2011

In control rats, we examined the effects of ketogenic diet on NKCC1 and KCC2 expression levels in hippocampus. Neither the number of NKCC1 immunoreactive cells nor the intensity of labeling of KCC2 was found to modify in hippocampus of the rats after ketogenic diet treatment. These results indicate that ketogenic diet by itself does not modify the expression of these cation chloride cotransporters. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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