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Moreno Ayala M.A.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Moreno Ayala M.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Casasco A.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Casasco A.,University of Buenos Aires | And 5 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

The inflammatory response in the myocardium is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of Chagas’ heart disease raised by Trypanosoma cruzi. CD40, a transmembrane type I receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, is expressed in a broad spectrum of cell types and is crucial in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Activation of CD40 through ligation to CD40L (CD154) induces multiple effects, including the secretion of proinflammatory molecules. In the present study, we examined the ability of T. cruzi to trigger the expression of CD40 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in a murine model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Our results indicate, for the first time, that T. cruzi is able to induce the expression of CD40 in HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ligation of CD40 receptor upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6), associated with inflammation. Furthermore, the induction of this costimulatory molecule was demonstrated in vivo in myocardium of mice infected with T. cruzi. This suggests that CD40-bearing cardiac muscle cells could interact with CD40L-expressing lymphocytes infiltrating the heart, thus contributing to inflammatory injury in chagasic cardiomyopathy. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Cutrullis R.A.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Poklepovich T.J.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Postan M.,Instituto Nacional Of Parasitologia Dr Mario Fatala Chaben Anlis Malbran | Freilij H.L.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Petray P.B.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2011

Heart failure and sudden death are the most common causes of death in patients with Chagas' disease. The main drug available for Chagas treatment is benznidazole, which eradicates Trypanosoma cruzi parasites during the acute stage of infection. However, its effectiveness during the chronic phase remains unclear. Ganglioside GM1 administration in chronically infected patients resulted to be an effective treatment for the cardiac manifestations of Chagas' disease. However, the precise mechanisms of GM1-induced improvement during chronic T. cruzi infection still remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential benefits of ganglioside GM1 treatment during the chronic stage of murine chagasic infection, analyzing its influence on myocardial pathology as well as its immunomodulatory effects. The results obtained showed that GM1 therapy diminished the extent of myocardial fibrosis induced by T. cruzi in chronically infected mice. In addition, GM1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the myocardial expression of the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β as well as the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and CCL5/RANTES. Our experimental data indicate that GM1 could be a promising mmunomodulatory agent with capacity to limit the inflammatory process leading to myocardial tissue damage in chronic chagasic patients. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Cutrullis R.A.,Servicio de Parasitologia Chagas | Petray P.B.,Servicio de Parasitologia Chagas | Schapachnik E.,Servicio de Cardiologia | Sanchez R.,Servicio de Cardiologia | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Clinical symptoms of chronic Chagas disease occur in around 30% of the individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and are characterized by heart inflammation and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is not completely understood yet, partially because disease evolution depends on complex host-parasite interactions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that promotes numerous pathophysiological processes. In the current study, we investigated the link between MIF and CCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated MIF overexpression in the hearts from chronically T. cruzi-infected mice, particularly those showing intense inflammatory infiltration. We also found that MIF exogenously added to parasite-infected murine macrophage cultures is capable of enhancing the production of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species, both with pathogenic roles in CCC. Thus, the integrated action of MIF and other cytokines and chemokines may account for leukocyte influx to the infected myocardium, accompanied by enhanced local production of multiple inflammatory mediators. We further examined by ELISA the level of MIF in the sera from chronic indeterminate and cardiomyopathic chagasic patients, and healthy subjects. CCC patients displayed significantly higher MIF concentrations than those recorded in asymptomatic T. cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals. Interestingly, increased MIF levels were associated with severe progressive Chagas heart disease, in correlation with elevated serum concentration of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and also with several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular dysfunction, one of the hallmarks of CCC. Our present findings represent the first evidence that enhanced MIF production is associated with progressive cardiac impairment in chronic human infection with T. cruzi, strengthening the relationship between inflammatory response and parasite-driven pathology. These observations contribute to unravel the elements involved in the pathogenesis of CCC and may also be helpful for the design of novel therapies aimed to control long-term morbidity in chagasic patients. © 2013 Cutrullis et al. Source

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