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Caracas, Venezuela

The main role of iodine is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related to brain development and metabolic regulation. Urinary iodine excretion is a useful and important indicator of the iodine status of a population. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the median urinary iodine concentration in a population of pregnant women should range between 150 and 249 μg/L and in a population of school children it should range between 100 and 200 μg/L. Objective: To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in school children and pregnant women of Trujillo State, in the Andean region of Venezuela. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 400 school children aged 7-14 years and 300 pregnant women. Random urine samples were collected and analyzed for urinary iodine by Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. The criteria suggested by WHO to indicate iodine deficiency were applied. Results: Median urinary iodine for school children was 175 μg/L; and 6,25% of children had urinary iodine concentrations below 50 μg/L. Median urinary iodine for pregnant women was 228 μg/L; and 25% of pregnant women had urinary iodine concentrations below 150 μg/L. Conclusions: On the basis of the WHO criteria, the iodine intake in school children and pregnant women in Trujillo State, Venezuela, is adequate. Copyright ® 2011 por la Sociedad Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo. Source


Background: Perception that a beautiful tan is healthy and attractive, to educate adolescents about sun protection is quite difficult Research on skin cancer prevention has increased in recent years, also better advances in technological methods are used to estimate uv exposure and uv damage. Our goal was to determine the educational impact and knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sun protection among the children of secondary schools and colleges. Materials and methods: a cohort prospective and intervention study was conducted, at three secondary schools in Mexico City. The 446 students were evaluated by a self- administered and structured test, with questions on knowledge, attitudes and practices about sun protection before, and 3 months after an educational project comparing performance pretest and posttest results: Four hundred and forty six students were included in this study; 54% female and 46% males. 892 questionnaires were analyzed Exposure time was 20.2 hours per week. Among the 446 students who participated in the study, 47.8 % had olive skin (light-brown). Some students, improved significantly from their pretest to posttest scores (p< 0.05) in the schools (S) 1, 2 and 3. Students who had knowledge about sun exposure (75.6%-84.9%; p=.000) S1; (75%-98.4%; p=.001) S3 and were aware that sun exposure has been associated with adverse health consequences including: that sun exposure caused skin cancer (91.4%-94.3%; p=.011) S2; that mortality is increased (86.2%-87.2%; p=.002) S1; but it is curable (41.0%-45.5%; p=.039) S1; than excessive sun exposure is related to aging of the skin (40.1%-60.6%; p=.001) S1; that immune response is altered (57.7%-74%; p=.007) S1. Besides a great majority of the students recognized that sun envejecimiento (40.1%-60.6%; p=.001) E1; y disminuir las defensas (57.7%-74%; p=.007) E1. Además de que la mayor parte de los estudiantes reconoce que la exposición solar puede tener efectos adversos en la salud, los estudiantes consideran que el bronceado no es saludable (61.2% E1; 68.6% E2; 60.9% E3). limitaciones: En este estudio participó un solo médico y se restringió a sólo tres escuelas secundarias privadas y públicas de la ciudad de México. conclusiones: Los dermatólogos deben ser líderes en disenar, Implementar y evaluar intervenciones estratégicas para lograr una prevención adecuada del cáncer de piel. Este estudio demuestra que una intervención educativa entre estudiantes de diferente grado, género y edad puede incrementar en un futuro el conocimiento de los jóvenes en el cuidado de la piel, incluyendo el conocimiento y las prácticas de protección solar. palabras clave: Intervención educativa, conocimientos, actitudes, prácticas, exposición solar, cáncer de piel, protector solar. exposure produces adverse health consequences, some students believed tanning is unhealthy (61.2% S1; 68.6% S2; 60.9% S3). limitations: This study only used one health educator and was restricted to only three private and public schools in Mexico City. conclusions: Dermatologist can provide leadership in designing, implementing, and evaluating promising strategies to increase skin cancer prevention. This study demonstrates that modest education among students of different grades, sexes and ages can increase knowledge of skin care, including knowledge and practices of sun protection, and diminishing skin cancer. Source


de la Fuente-Sandoval C.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia | Favila R.,General Electric | Gomez-Martin D.,Instituto Nacional Of Nutricion | Pellicer F.,Instituto Nacional Of Psiquiatria | Graff-Guerrero A.,Multimodal Neuroimaging Schizophrenia Group
Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging | Year: 2010

Clinical evidence suggests that there is decreased pain sensitivity in schizophrenia; however, the neurobiological mechanism of this decrease remains unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) changes induced by experimental pain-tolerance (endure) hot stimuli vs. non-painful stimuli during an acute psychotic episode in 12 drug-free patients with schizophrenia and in 13 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. The analyses revealed that patients showed a greater BOLD response at S1 compared with controls but a reduced BOLD response in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), insula, and brainstem during pain-tolerance stimuli. Pain-tolerance temperature was higher in patients than in healthy controls. BOLD response in the insula positively correlated with unpleasantness and temperature in controls, but this effect was not observed in patients. S1 BOLD response positively correlated with unpleasantness in patients but not in controls. These initial results confirm that unmedicated patients with schizophrenia have a higher pain tolerance than controls, decreased activation in pain affective-cognitive processing regions (insula, PCC, brainstem), and an over-activation of the primary sensory-discriminative pain processing region (S1). These pilot results are the first to explore the mechanism driving altered pain sensitivity in schizophrenia. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Arista-Nasr J.,Instituto Nacional Of Nutricion | Trolle-Silva A.,Instituto Nacional Of Nutricion | Aguilar-Ayala E.,Institute Seguridad Y Servicios Sociales Of Los Trabajadores Del Estado | Martinez-Benitez B.,Instituto Nacional Of Nutricion
Actas Urologicas Espanolas | Year: 2016

Objectives In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. Methods We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Results Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. Conclusions The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. © 2015 AEU. Source


Marin-Hernandez A.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia | Gallardo-Perez J.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia | Lopez-Ramirez S.Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia | Garcia-Garcia J.D.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia | And 10 more authors.
Archives of Toxicology | Year: 2012

The copper-based drug Casiopeina II-gly (CasII-gly) shows potent antineoplastic eVect and diminishes mitochondrial metabolism on several human and rodent malignant tumors. To elucidate whether CasII-gly also aVects glycolysis, (a) the Xux through the complete pathway and the initial segment and (b) the activities of several glycolytic enzymes of AS-30D hepatocarcinoma cells were determined. CasII-gly (IC 50 = 0.74-6.7 μM) was more eVective to inhibit 24-72 h growth of several human carcinomas than 3-bromopyruvate (3BrPyr) (IC 50 = 45- 100 μM) with no apparent eVect on normal human-proliferating lymphocytes and HUVECs. In short-term 60-min experiments, CasII-gly increased tumor cell lactate production and glycogen breakdown. CasII-gly was 1.3-21 times more potent than 3BrPyr and cisplatin to inhibit tumor HK. As CasII-gly inhibited the soluble and mitochondrial HK activities and the Xux through the HK-TPI glycolytic segment, whereas PFK-1, GAPDH, PGK, PYK activities and HPI-TPI segment Xux were not aVected, the data suggested glycogenolysis activation induced by HK inhibition. Accordingly, glycogen-depleted as well as oligomycintreated cancer cells became more sensitive to CasII-gly. The inhibition time-course of HK by CasII-gly was slower than that of OxPhos in AS-30D cells, indicating that glycolytic toxicity was secondary to mitochondria, the primary CasII-gly target. In long-term 24-h experiments with HeLa cells, 5 μM CasII-gly inhibited OxPhos (80%), glycolysis (40%), and HK (42%). The present data indicated that CasII-gly is an eVective multisite anticancer drug simultaneously targeting mitochondria and glycolysis. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

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