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German-Castelan L.,University of the Basque Country | Manjarrez-Marmolejo J.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Mvs | Gonzalez-Arenas A.,University of the Basque Country | Gonzalez-Moran M.G.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Of La Reproduccion Animal | Camacho-Arroyo I.,University of the Basque Country
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Progesterone (P4) promotes cell proliferation in several types of cancer, including brain tumors such as astrocytomas, the most common and aggressive primary intracerebral neoplasm in humans. In this work, we studied the effects of P4 and its intracellular receptor antagonist, RU486, on growth and infiltration of U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, implanted in the motor cortex of adult male rats, using two treatment schemes. In the first one, fifteen days after cells implantation, rats were daily subcutaneously treated with vehicle (propylene glycol, 160 L), P 4 (1 mg), RU486 (5 mg), or P4 + RU486 (1 mg and 5 mg, resp.) for 21 days. In the second one, treatments started 8 weeks after cells implantation and lasted for 14 days. In both schemes we found that P4 significantly increased the tumor area as compared with the rest of the treatments, whereas RU486 blocked P4 effects. All rats treated with P4 showed tumor infiltration, while 28.6% and 42.9% of the animals treated with RU486 and P4 + RU486, respectively, presented it. Our data suggest that P4 promotes growth and migration of human astrocytoma cells implanted in the motor cortex of the rat through the interaction with its intracellular receptor. © 2014 Liliana Germán-Castelán et al.

Nava-Ruiz C.,De Neurologia y Neurocirugia | Nava-Ruiz C.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Mvs | Alcaraz-Zubeldia M.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Mendez-Armenta M.,De Neurologia y Neurocirugia | And 3 more authors.
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2010

Interference with nitric oxide production is a possible mechanism for lead neurotoxicity. In this work, we studied the effects of sub-acute lead administration on the distribution of NOS isoforms in the hippocampus with respect to blood and hippocampal lead levels. Lead acetate (125, 250 and 500. ppm) was given via drinking water to adult male Wistar rats for 14 days. We determined blood and hippocampal lead levels by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Antibodies against three isoforms of NOS were used to analyze expression and immunolocalization using western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Blood and hippocampal lead levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner in groups treated with lead acetate. We found diminished expression and immunoreactivity of nNOS and eNOS at 500. ppm as compared to the control group. No expression and immunoreactivity was observed in hippocampus for iNOS. The observed high levels of lead in the blood reflect free physiological access to this metal to the organism and were related to diminished expression and immunoreactivity for nNOS and eNOS. © 2009 Elsevier GmbH.

Jacinto-Aleman L.F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hernandez-Guerrero J.C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Trejo-Solis C.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Mvs | Jimenez-Farfan M.D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Fernandez-Presas A.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine | Year: 2010

Excessive fluoride ingestion has been identified as a risk factor for fluorosis and oxidative stress. The oxidative stress results from the loss of equilibrium between oxidative and antioxidative mechanisms that can produce kinase activation, mitochondrial disturbance and DNA fragmentation, resulting in apoptosis. Actually many people are exposed to no-adverted fluoride consumption in acute or chronic way. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium fluoride on first molar germ in relation to its effect on antioxidative enzymes immunoexpression and apoptosis. Thirty first molar germs from 1-day-old Balb/c mice were cultured for 24 h with sodium fluoride (0 mM, 1 mM and 5 mM). Immunoexpression determination of CuZnSod, MnSod, catalase, Bax, Bid, caspase 8, caspase 9, caspase 3 and TUNEL assay were perfomed. Cellular disorganization in ameloblast and odontoblast-papilla zones was observed. CuZnSod and MnSod immunoexpression decrease in experimental groups. Caspase 8, caspase 3, Bax, Bid increase expression and more TUNEL positive cells in both experimental groups than control, suggest that apoptosis induced by fluoride is related to oxidative stress due to reduction of the enzymatic antioxidant. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Diaz A.,Autonomous University of Puebla | Diaz A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Diaz A.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Mvs | Limon D.,Autonomous University of Puebla | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2012

Amyloid-β (Aβ) 25-35 is able to cause memory impairment and neurodegenerative events. Recent evidence has shown that the injection of Aβ 25-35 into the temporal cortex (TCx) of rats increases the inflammatory response; however, it is unclear how the inflammatory process could be involved in the progression of Aβ 25-35 toxicity. In this study we investigated the role of inflammation in the neuronal damage and spatial memory impairment generated by Aβ 25-35 in rat TCx using immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and a behavioral test in the radial maze. Our findings show that Aβ 25-35 -injection into the TCx induced a reactive gliosis (GFAP and CD11b-reactivity) and an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-α) in the TCx and the hippocampus at 5, 15, and 30 days after injection. Thirty days after Aβ 25-35 injection, we observed that the inflammatory reaction probably contributed to increase the immunoreactivity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrite levels, as well as to the loss of neurons in TCx and hippocampus. Behavioral performance showed that the neurodegeneration evoked by Aβ 25-35 delayed acquisition of learning and impaired spatial memory, because the Aβ 25-35-treated animals showed a greater number of errors during the task than the control group. Previous administration of an interleukin receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) (10 and 20 μg/μL, into TCx), an anti-inflammatory agent, suppressed the Aβ 25-35-induced inflammatory response and neurodegeneration, as well as memory dysfunction. This study suggests that the chronic inflammatory reaction could contribute to the progression of Aβ 25-35 toxicity and cause cognitive impairment. © 2012 -IOS Press and the authors.

Cantu-Brito C.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | Arauz A.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Mvs | Aburto Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Mvs | Barinagarrementeria F.,Hospital Angeles | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Neurology | Year: 2011

Background and purpose: Although pregnancy and postpartum have long been associated with stroke, there is a dearth of information in Latino-American populations. The aim of this study was to describe the cerebrovascular complications occurring during pregnancy/postpartum and compare the characteristics amongst stroke types occurring in this period in Hispanic women. Patients and methods: We studied 240 women with cerebrovascular complications during pregnancy and the first 5weeks postpartum, from our stroke registry. Patients were classified into three groups: cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), ischaemic stroke (IS), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). For each group, clinical data, timing of the event, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Of the 240 women, 136 had CVT (56.7%), 64 IS (26.7%), and 40 ICH (16.6%). In 72 women (30%), the event occurred during pregnancy, in 153 (64%) during postpartum, and in 15 (6%) closely related to labor. CVT was more common in the first trimester of pregnancy and in the second and third weeks following delivery; whilst IS and ICH were seen mainly during pregnancy and the first 2weeks following delivery. Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was more common in patients with ICH (57.5%) and IS (36%) than in those with CVT (9.6%) (P<0.001). An excellent recovery (modified Rankin Scale: 0-1) was observed amongst women with CVT (64%) and IS (50%) compared to ICH (32%), (P=0.004). Conclusions: Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is a frequent risk factor in patients with ICH and IS, but not in CVT. Stroke types clustered different within the pregnancy-postpartum period. A good prognosis is observed in patients with CVT. Click to view the accompanying paper in this issue. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.

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