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PubMed | National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute INNN, National Cancer Institute and Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) | Year: 2015

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease presumably associated with chronic immune stimulation promoted by either pathogens or autoimmune processes. It has been hypothesized that MS could be the result of previous viral infections rendering a permanent immune stimulation that could be triggered by molecular similarities, or by modulating the antigens expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on target cells, which in turn act as super antigens. During immune stimulation occurs the recruitment of immunological cells, resulting in local tissue damage and leading to the release of damage- associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which also act as inflammation inducers. Recently, it has been proposed that the association between pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) with DAMPs constitutes an additional level of immune regulation. The properties of DAMPs to act as carriers of PAMPs and their role as enhancers or inhibitors of PAMPs could play a role during inflammatory responses triggered by infections. Here, we focused this review in outcomes which support the hypothesis that particular PAMP-DAMPs interactions could regulated the relapse and progressive disability observed in multiple sclerosis.


Fleury A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Fleury A.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Sciutto E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Larralde C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2012

In this work, we report the published cases of human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as Taenia solium taeniasis diagnosed in Mexico during the last 10 years. Numerical data allow us to state that this disease remains as a public health problem in our country. Whereas efficient tools have been developed for the diagnosis and prevention of cysticercosis, we strongly recommend further measures allowing the control and eventual eradication of this parasite in Mexico.


Trejo-Solis C.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Pedraza-Chaverri J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Torres-Ramos M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Jimenez-Farfan D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 4 more authors.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Epidemiological studies suggest that including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in regular dietary intake might prevent and reverse cellular carcinogenesis, reducing the incidence of primary tumours. Bioactive components present in food can simultaneously modulate more than one carcinogenic process, including cancer metabolism, hormonal balance, transcriptional activity, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Some studies have shown an inverse correlation between a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and carotenoids and a low incidence of different types of cancer. Lycopene, the predominant carotenoid found in tomatoes, exhibits a high antioxidant capacity and has been shown to prevent cancer, as evidenced by clinical trials and studies in cell culture and animal models. In vitro studies have shown that lycopene treatment can selectively arrest cell growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting normal cells. In vivo studies have revealed that lycopene treatment inhibits tumour growth in the liver, lung, prostate, breast, and colon. Clinical studies have shown that lycopene protects against prostate cancer. One of the main challenges in cancer prevention is the integration of new molecular findings into clinical practice. Thus, the identification of molecular biomarkers associated with lycopene levels is essential for improving our understanding of the mechanisms underlying its antineoplastic activity. © 2013 Cristina Trejo-Solís et al.


Magana-Maldonado R.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Magana-Maldonado R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Manoutcharian K.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hernandez-Pedro N.Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent primary brain tumor, it has poor prognosis, and it remains refractory to current treatment. The success of temozolomide (TMZ) appears to be limited by the occurrence of chemoresistance. Recently, we report the use of pertussis toxin as adjuvant immunotherapy in a C6 glioma model; showing a decrease in tumoral size, it induced selective cell death in Treg cells, and it elicited less infiltration of tumoral macrophages. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of pertussis toxin in combination with TMZ for glioma treatment, both in vitro and in vivo RG2 glioma model. Methods: We determined cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy on treated RG2 cells through flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot assays. Twenty-eight rats were divided in four groups (n = 7) for each treatment. After intracranial implantation of RG2 cells, animals were treated with TMZ (10 mg/Kg/200 μl of apple juice), PTx (2 μg/200 μl of saline solution), and TMZ + PTx. Animals without treatment were considered as control. Results: We found an induction of apoptosis in around 20 % of RG2 cells, in both single treatments and in their combination. Also, we determined the presence of autophagy vesicles, without any modifications in the cell cycle in the TMZ - PTx-treated groups. The survival analyses showed an increase due to individual treatments; while in the group treated with the combination TMZ - PTx, this effect was enhanced. Conclusion: We show that the concomitant use of pertussis toxin plus TMZ could represent an advantage to improve the glioma treatment. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Hernandez-Pedro N.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Granados-Soto V.,CINVESTAV | Ordonez G.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Pineda B.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | And 4 more authors.
Translational Research | Year: 2014

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) promotes the endogenous expression of both nerve growth factor (NGF) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-β). We have previously shown that the administration of ATRA partly reverts the damage induced by diabetic neuropathy (DN). In this investigation, we evaluated the effects of vitamin A, a commercial, inexpensive compound of retinoic acid, on the therapy of DN. A total of 70 rats were randomized into 4 groups. Group A was the control, and groups B, C, and D received a total dose of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally. When signs of DN developed, groups C and D were treated either with vitamin A (20,000 IU) or with ATRA 25 mg/kg for 60 days. Plasma glucose, contents of NGF, thermal and nociceptive tests, and RAR-β expression were evaluated. All diabetic rats developed neuropathy. The treatment with vitamin A and ATRA reverted similarly the sensorial disturbances, which was associated with increased contents of NGF and RAR-β expression. Our results indicate that the administration of vitamin A has the same therapeutic effect as ATRA on peripheral neuropathy and suggest its potential therapeutic use in patients with diabetes. © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


Orozco-Morales M.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Orozco-Morales M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Sanchez-Garcia F.-J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Guevara-Salazar P.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose In spite of the recent advances in surgery and antitumor drugs, the brain tumors, like glioblastoma, have shown a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine the eVect of pertussis toxin (PTx) as immunomodulatory molecule on glial tumors induced by C6 glioma cells. Methods Given the pleiotropic eVect of PTx on the immune system, we analyzed the eVect of PTx on CD4+/ CD25+/FoxP3+ (Treg) cells like as immunotherapeutic adjuvant. Thirty rats with a glial tumor of 1.5 cm in diameter were separated in two groups: the Wrst group was treated with PTx and the second group was non-treated (controls). Tumoral volume was measured weekly; tumor, blood and spleen were taken for analysis of subpopulations of T cells, apoptotic index and cytokine contents, in both groups. Results We observed a signiWcant decrease in tumor volume in the PTx group; this was associated with a decreased in the number of Treg cells, in both spleen and tumor. The percentage of apoptotic cells was increased as compared with that of controls. The production of proinXammatory cytokines was increased in mRNA for IL-6 as well as a small increase in the mRNA expression of perforin and granzime in tumors from rats treated with PTx. No changes were found in the mRNA expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1α.Conclusion These results suggest that PTx could be an immunotherapeutic adjuvant in the integral therapy against glial tumors.© 2011 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | CINVESTAV, Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan and Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine | Year: 2014

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) promotes the endogenous expression of both nerve growth factor (NGF) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-). We have previously shown that the administration of ATRA partly reverts the damage induced by diabetic neuropathy (DN). In this investigation, we evaluated the effects of vitamin A, a commercial, inexpensive compound of retinoic acid, on the therapy of DN. A total of 70 rats were randomized into 4 groups. Group A was the control, and groups B, C, and D received a total dose of 60mg/kg streptozotocin intraperitoneally. When signs of DN developed, groups C and D were treated either with vitamin A (20,000IU) or with ATRA 25mg/kg for 60days. Plasma glucose, contents of NGF, thermal and nociceptive tests, and RAR- expression were evaluated. All diabetic rats developed neuropathy. The treatment with vitamin A and ATRA reverted similarly the sensorial disturbances, which was associated with increased contents of NGF and RAR- expression. Our results indicate that the administration of vitamin A has the same therapeutic effect as ATRA on peripheral neuropathy and suggest its potential therapeutic use in patients with diabetes.


Vianney Kinani J.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Rosales-Silva A.J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Gallegos-Funes F.J.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Arellanob A.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

In this work, we present a fast and robust method for lesions detection, primarily, a non-linear image enhancement is performed on T1 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images in order to facilitate an effective segmentation that enables the lesion detection. First a dynamic system that performs the intensity transformation through the Modified sigmoid function contrast stretching is established, then, the enhanced image is used to classify different brain structures including the lesion using constrained fuzzy clustering, and finally, the lesion contour is outlined through the level set evolution. Through experiments, validation of the algorithm was carried out using both clinical and synthetic brain lesion datasets and an 84%-93% overlap performance of the proposed algorithm was obtained with an emphasis on robustness with respect to different lesion types. © 2014 SPIE.


Hernandez-Pedro N.Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Espinosa-Ramirez G.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | De La Cruz V.P.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Pineda B.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn | Sotelo J.,Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2013

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. The hallmark to MS is the demyelinated plaque, which consists of a well-demarcated hypocellular area characterized by the loss of myelin, the formation of astrocytic scars, and the mononuclear cell infiltrates concentrated in perivascular spaces composed of T cells, B lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Activation of resident cells initiates an inflammatory cascade, leading to tissue destruction, demyelination, and neurological deficit. The immunological phenomena that lead to the activation of autoreactive T cells to myelin sheath components are the result of multiple and complex interactions between environment and genetic background conferring individual susceptibility. Within the CNS, an increase of TLR expression during MS is observed, even in the absence of any apparent microbial involvement. In the present review, we focus on the role of the innate immune system, the first line of defense of the organism, as promoter and mediator of cross reactions that generate molecular mimicry triggering the inflammatory response through an adaptive cytotoxic response in MS. © 2013 Norma Y. Hernández-Pedro et al.


PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Neurologia Y Neurocirugia Innn
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology | Year: 2014

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent primary brain tumor, it has poor prognosis, and it remains refractory to current treatment. The success of temozolomide (TMZ) appears to be limited by the occurrence of chemoresistance. Recently, we report the use of pertussis toxin as adjuvant immunotherapy in a C6 glioma model; showing a decrease in tumoral size, it induced selective cell death in Treg cells, and it elicited less infiltration of tumoral macrophages. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of pertussis toxin in combination with TMZ for glioma treatment, both in vitro and in vivo RG2 glioma model.We determined cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy on treated RG2 cells through flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot assays. Twenty-eight rats were divided in four groups (n = 7) for each treatment. After intracranial implantation of RG2 cells, animals were treated with TMZ (10 mg/Kg/200 l of apple juice), PTx (2 g/200 l of saline solution), and TMZ + PTx. Animals without treatment were considered as control.We found an induction of apoptosis in around 20 % of RG2 cells, in both single treatments and in their combination. Also, we determined the presence of autophagy vesicles, without any modifications in the cell cycle in the TMZ - PTx-treated groups. The survival analyses showed an increase due to individual treatments; while in the group treated with the combination TMZ - PTx, this effect was enhanced.We show that the concomitant use of pertussis toxin plus TMZ could represent an advantage to improve the glioma treatment.

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