Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia

Brasília, Brazil

Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia

Brasília, Brazil
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Salvador M.D.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia | de Brito J.I.B.,Federal University of Campina Grande
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2017

During the 1980s, a new agricultural frontier arouse in Brazil, which occupied part of the states of Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia. Currently, this new frontier is known as the MATOPIBA region. The region went through intense transformations in its social and environmental characteristics, with the emergence of extensive areas of intensive agriculture and large herds. The purpose of this research was to study the climatic variabilities of temperature in the MATOPIBA region through extreme climate indexes of ClimAp tool. Data from 11 weather stations were analyzed for yearly air temperature (maximum and minimum) in the period of 1970 to 2012. To verify the trend in the series, we used methods of linear regression analysis and Kendall-tau test. The annual analysis of maximum and minimum temperatures and of the temperature extremes indexes showed a strong positive trend in practically every series (with p value less than 0.05). These results indicated that the region went through to a significant heating process in the last 3 decades. The indices of extreme also showed a significant positive trend in most of the analyzed stations, indicating a higher frequency of warm days during the year. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Wien


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: | Phase: ICT-2007.6.3 | Award Amount: 3.53M | Year: 2008

Disaster risk reduction policies and institutional mechanism exist at various degrees of completeness in the African countries part of the consortium. Their effectiveness is however limited when having to deal with major disasters and complex emergencies. Risk management is often limited to specific hazard monitoring with limited or no consideration of the vulnerability of the area at risk neither to the systemic nature and possible domino effect between risks of different nature. It is the vulnerability of the population and of the infrastructure at risk that may transform a hazard into a major disaster. The objective of IRMA is to demonstrate the effectiveness of ICT applications to deal with major disasters and the possibly resulting humanitarian crisis by integrating the whole disaster management chain from assessment to recovery. This will be realized by the integration of existing tools adapted to the regional specificities with new developments addressing the issue of multiple combined vulnerabilities. The general architecture of IRMA is system of systems based drawing from the results of the WIN and ORCHESTRA Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), it will ensure interoperability with INSPIRE and the merging UNSDI with the view to benefit from both EU and UN current and future services.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SPA.2009.3.2.01 | Award Amount: 985.77K | Year: 2010

The SAGA-EO proposition consists in a feasibility study on critical pieces of the puzzle of the Lisbon Declaration Implementation Plan on GMES and Africa and to complement previous experience in that field. The SAGA-EO concept is based on a sound experience of both European and African programmes dealing with environment monitoring based on information derived from Earth Observation data. The main finding driving the concept is that no programme tackles the EO field as a global approach (technological, organisational and institutional). The way to implement this EO capacity building challenge is to set-up dedicated EO networks at African national level and to link them with existing initiatives in Africa and Europe. In SAGA-EO, the EO network approach will constitute the ground where to build the thematic networks. The main purpose and objectives of the SAGA-EO project is to design and implement the network organisation and associated technology and to prove it in five countries trough the following the five main actions : Action 1: To define African Earth Observation network organisational models at national level Action 2: To define generic technological solutions, compatible with existing standards, to receive, archive, share, disseminate, advise on EO data Action 3: To implement a proof of concept of the organisation & technology in few countries Action 4: To write a methodology for the implementation of the future operational networks and system Action 5: To cooperate with the GMES Africa Working Groups in the preparation of the EU-AU Join Strategic Partnership action plan.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2011.4.1.4-1 | Award Amount: 4.12M | Year: 2011

AGRICAB aims to strengthen Earth Observation (EO) capacities in Africa by building on the open data sharing through GEONETCast, connecting the available satellite and other data with predictive models in order to facilitate integration in agriculture and forestry planning and management processes. Dedicated national applications in various African countries are designed to address particular policy issues related to livestock, crop systems and forest management. Through these applications, twinning partnerships are developed between a European and an African partner, to maximize knowledge transfer and integration. Experiences learned will form a good basis for regional trainings to the member states of the Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (OSS) in Tunisia, the Regional Centre for Mapping Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Kenya and the AGRHYMET regional centre in Niger, covering almost the entire African continent. These activities will be linked with Africa-wide management and research initiatives and programmes on Forest and Agriculture and builds on experiences from the GEONETCast for and by Developing Countries (DevCoCast) and Global Monitoring for Food Security (GMFS) projects.


Coelho M.S.Z.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia | Massad E.,University of Sao Paulo | Massad E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2012

In this work, we correlate the daily number of human leptospirosis cases with several climatic factors. We used a negative binomial model that considers hospital daily admissions due to leptospirosis as the dependent variable, and the climatic variables of daily precipitation pattern, and maximum and minimum temperature as independent variables. We calculated the monthly leptospirosis admission probabilities from the precipitation and maximum temperature variables. The month of February showed the highest probability, although values were also high during the spring months. The month of February also showed the highest number of hospital admissions. Another interesting result is that, for every 20 mm precipitation, there was an average increase of 31.5% in hospital admissions. Additionally, the relative risk of leptospirosis varied from 1.1 to 2.0 when the precipitation varied from 20 to 140 mm. © 2011 ISB.


Ferreira D.B.,National Institute for Space Research | Ferreira D.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia Inmet | Ferreira D.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia | Rao V.B.,National Institute for Space Research
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2011

Recent climate variability in rainfall, temperatures (maximum and minimum), and the diurnal temperature range is studied with emphasis on its influence over soybean yields in southern Brazil, during 1969 to 2002. The results showed that the soybean (Glycine max L. Merril) yields are more affected by changes in temperature during summer, while changes in rainfall are more important during the beginning of plantation and at its peak of development. Furthermore, soybean yields in Paraná are more sensitive to rainfall variations, while soybean yields in the Rio Grande do Sul are more sensitive to variations in temperature. Effects of interannual climatic variability on soybean yields are evaluated through three agro-meteorological models: additive Stewart, multiplicative Rao, and multiplicative Jensen. The Jensen model is able to reproduce the interannual behavior of soybean yield reasonably well. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Costa R.L.,University of Brasilia | De Souza E.P.,Federal University of Campina Grande | Silva F.D.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia
Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia | Year: 2014

This study aimed to apply the heat engine theory to an event of Upper-Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) occurred in Northeast Brazil in order to examine one of the mechanisms that maintains this type of system. The theory is based on the second law of thermodynamics and it was used to calculate the pressure difference between two points located at the center and periphery of UTCV. The Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) model represented well the event occurred in the period of 10 to 21 January 2011, showing a higher intensity in this event from 16 to 19 January 2011. The heat engine theory showed as an useful tool to be used in the study of UTCVs, showing good agreement with the simulations performed with the model.


Manhique A.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia | Reason C.J.C.,University of Cape Town | Silinto B.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia | Zucula J.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia | And 3 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2015

During January 2013, very heavy rainfall over central and southern Mozambique led to severe flooding more than 100 deaths, and the displacement of about 200, 000 people. The atmospheric and oceanic patterns associated with this devastating event are analysed. An active South Indian Convergence Zone (SICZ) in January 2013 was associated with the heavy rainfall event. The SICZ was sustained by a low-level trough, linked to a Southern Hemisphere planetary wave (wavenumber-4) pattern and an upper-level ridge over south-eastern Africa. The low-level trough and upper-level ridge contributed to the convergence of moisture over south-eastern Africa, particularly from the tropical South East Atlantic (specifically offshore of Angola in the so-called Benguela Niño region), which in turn contributed to the prolonged life span of the event. Positive SST anomalies (1–2 °C) in the Benguela Niño region were favourable for the substantial contribution of moisture fluxes to the event from the South Atlantic Ocean. This contribution is of particular interest since previous work has tended to ignore this basin and regard the Indian Ocean as the most important moisture source for rainfall over south-eastern Africa. The guidance forecast issued by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre, Pretoria for the period indicated its likely occurrence with a lead time of 4 days; however, the magnitude was underestimated, which may be linked to the threshold system used in the forecast system. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Bueno R.C.,Federal University of Lavras | de Carvalho L.G.,Federal University of Lavras | Vianello R.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Meteorologia | Marques J.J.G.S.M.,Federal University of Lavras
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2011

The present work was carried out in order to study the ccurrence probabilities o of extreme winds and their predominant directions in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The data were collected from graphic registrations of the universal anemograph of the Principal Climatological Station of Lavras, located in the campus of the Federal University of Lavras. With the available data (139 months), in the period of January/1988 to May/2004, the adjustment by Gamma distribution was verified for this data series applying the χ 2 test to the 5% probability. Estimates of the occurrence probabilities of wind gust equal or above 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 km h -1 were determined for each month. It was verified that the months of September to February presented strong winds with probabilities higher than the other months. For very strong winds, above 100 km h -1, the occurrence probabilities were minimum for all months of the year. It was observed that the predominant wind gust direction were east and west in relation to the others.

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