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Valente R.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Tropical Inmet | Ibanez L.M.,National University of La Plata | Lorenti E.,National University of La Plata | Fiorini V.D.,University of Buenos Aires | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

The aim of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of gastrointestinal parasites of the European starling Sturnus vulgaris, an invasive bird from Argentina. Seventy-six birds were collected during the spring of 2007 and were examined for helminths. Six parasite species were found: one trematoda of the Echinostoma revolutum "group," four nematodes (Synhimantus nasuta, Microtetrameres sp., Pterothominx exilis, and Ornithocapillaria ovopunctata), and one acanthocephalan (Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus). All species found have been recorded in Eurasia and/or North America previously, although present reports enlarge their geographical distribution. As expected in an invasive host, the parasite community shows much lower species richness (n=6) than those observed in their native area (79 and 35 in the Eurasia and North America, respectively). © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

Peichoto M.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Tropical Inmet | Peichoto M.E.,Instituto Butantan | Peichoto M.E.,University of Northern Colorado | Tavares F.L.,University of Northern Colorado | And 2 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics | Year: 2012

Opisthoglyphous snake venoms remain under-explored despite being promising sources for ecological, evolutionary and biomedical/biotechnological research. Herein, we compared the protein composition and enzymatic properties of the venoms of Philodryas baroni (PbV), Philodryas olfersii olfersii (PooV) and Philodryas patagoniensis (PpV) from South America, and Hypsiglena torquata texana (HttV) and Trimorphodon biscutatus lambda (TblV) from North America. All venoms degraded azocasein, and this metalloproteinase activity was significantly inhibited by EDTA. PooV exhibited the highest level of catalytic activity towards synthetic substrates for serine proteinases. All venoms hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine at low levels, and only TblV showed phospholipase A 2 activity. 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE profile comparisons demonstrated species-specific components as well as several shared components. Size exclusion chromatograms from the three Philodryas venoms and HttV were similar, but TblV showed a notably different pattern. MALDI-TOF MS of crude venoms revealed as many as 49 distinct protein masses, assigned to six protein families. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of tryptic peptides confirmed the presence of cysteine-rich secretory proteins in all venoms, as well as a phospholipase A2 and a three-finger toxin in TblV. Broad patterns of protein composition appear to follow phylogenetic lines, with finer scale variation likely influenced by ecological factors such as diet and habitat. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Lamattina D.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Tropical Inmet | Venzal J.M.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Guglielmone A.A.,CONICET | Nava S.,CONICET
Systematic and Applied Acarology | Year: 2016

Two females of Ixodes schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 were collected from Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) at Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina. This is the first record of this tick species in Argentina. All previous records of I. schulzei came from Brazil (some of them close to the border with Argentina) where larvae, nymphs and females of I. schulzei have been found parasitizing Sigmodontinae hosts. The current record of I. schulzei has been expected and its range may include Paraguay. © Systematic & Applied Acarology Society.

Sanchez M.N.,Northeast National University | Timoniuk A.,Northeast National University | Marunak S.,Northeast National University | Teibler P.,Northeast National University | And 3 more authors.
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2014

Philodryas baroni - an attractively colored snake - has become readily available through the exotic pet trade. Most people consider this species harmless; however, it has already caused human envenomation. As little is known about the venom from this South American opisthoglyphous "colubrid" snake, herein, we studied its protein composition by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), as well as its effects on the hemostatic system. Both reducing and nonreducing SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the venom exhibits greatest complexity in the range of 50-80 kDa. The venom displayed proteolytic activity toward azocollagen, with a specific activity of 75.5 U mg-1, and rapidly hydrolyzed the Aα-chain of fibrinogen, exhibiting lower activity toward the Bβ- and γ-chains. The venom from P. baroni showed no platelet proaggregating activity per se, but it inhibited collagen- and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Prominent hemorrhage developed in mouse skin after intradermal injection of the crude venom, and its minimum hemorrhagic dose was 13.9 μg. When injected intramuscularly into the gastrocnemius of mice, the venom induced local effects such as hemorrhage, myonecrosis, edema, and leucocyte infiltration. Due to its venom toxicity shown herein, P. baroni should be considered dangerous to humans and any medically significant bite should be promptly reviewed by a qualified health professional. © The Author(s) 2014.

Agostini I.,National University of Misiones | Holzmann I.,National University of Misiones | Di Bitetti M.S.,National University of Misiones | Oklander L.I.,National University of Misiones | And 10 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2014

The brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba clamitans) is endemic to South America's Atlantic Forest, with a small population extending into the northern portion of Misiones province in northeastern Argentina. In 2012, the species was classified as Critically Endangered in Argentina due to its highly restricted distribution, low population density and dramatic declines from recent Yellow Fever outbreaks. In March 2013, we organized an international workshop in Misiones to evaluate population status in Argentina and conduct a threat analysis. We developed population viability models using Vortex and Outbreak software packages. These tools allowed us to explore how several biological and demographic parameters of brown howlers, as well as factors related to Yellow Fever epidemiology, affect the probability of species extinction. The discussion among diverse specialists and analysis of model results identified Yellow Fever as the main threat to brown howler population persistence in Argentina. Our threat analysis, focused on the dynamics of Yellow Fever outbreaks and their impact on howler populations, led to the identification of gaps in knowledge that helped prioritize objectives and actions for the development of a Species Conservation Strategy in Argentina. © Ilaria Agostini, Ingrid Holzmann, Mario S. Di Bitetti, Luciana I. Oklander, Martín M. Kowalewski, Pablo M. Beldomnico, Silvina Goenaga, Mariela Martínez, Eduardo S. Moreno, Eduardo Lestani, Arnaud L. J. Desbiez, Philip Miller.

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