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Barroso M.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal Delegacao Do Sul | Dias M.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal Delegacao Do Sul | Vieira D.N.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal | LoPez-Rivadulla M.,Instituto Universitario Of Medicina Legal | Queiroz J.A.,University of Beira Interior
Biomedical Chromatography | Year: 2010

A simple and rapid method for the determination of methadone and its main metabolite EDDP in hair has been developed and validated. The analytes were completely extracted from the matrix after a short alkaline incubation, and the extracts were further cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode cartridges. Linearity was obtained from 0.1 (lower limit of quantitation, LLOQ) to 30-ng/mg for both compounds, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. Intra- and interday precision and accuracy were in conformity with internationally accepted guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, and the cleanup procedure presented mean extraction efficiencies higher than 90% for both analytes. This high efficiency greatly contributed to the low limits of quantitation achieved, and therefore this method can be successfully applied in the determination of methadone and EDDP in hair samples in clinical and forensic scenarios where these compounds are involved. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Barroso M.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal Delegacao Do Sul | Costa S.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal Delegacao Do Sul | Dias M.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal Delegacao Do Sul | Vieira D.N.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2010

A simple and sensitive procedure, using p-tolylpiperazine (pTP) as internal standard (IS), has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of 1-(3-trifuoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP) and 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MeOPP) in hair. Drug extraction was performed by incubation with 1M sodium hydroxide at 50°C for 40min, and the extracts were cleaned up using mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. The analytes were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide with 5% trimethylchlorosilane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. The method was linear from 0.05 (lower limit of quantitation) to 4ngmg-1, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 for all the compounds. Intra- and interday precision and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bioanalytical method validation, and the sample cleanup step presented a mean efficiency higher than 90% for all the analytes. Due to its simplicity and speed, this method can be successfully applied in the screening and quantitation of these compounds in hair samples, and is suitable for application in forensic toxicology routine analysis. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Puentes K.,National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic science North Branch | Puentes K.,Forensic Science Center | Puentes K.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal | Cardoso H.F.V.,University of Porto | Cardoso H.F.V.,University of Lisbon
Forensic Science International | Year: 2013

Identification of tool class characteristics from cut marks in either bone or cartilage is a valuable source of data for the forensic scientist. Various animal models have been used in experimental studies for the analysis of individual and class characteristics. However, human tissue has seldom been used and it is likely to differ from that of non-humans in key aspects. This study wishes to assess how the knife's blade angle, and both intra- and inter-individual variation in cartilage samples affect the ability of costal cartilage to retain the original class characteristics of the knife, as measured microscopically by the distance between consecutive striations. The 120 cartilaginous samples used in this study originated from the ribcage of 6 male cadavers which were submitted to autopsy at the North Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine, in Portugal. Three different serrated knives were purchased from a large department store, and were used in the experimental cuts. Samples of costal cartilage from 2 individuals were assigned to each knife. Each individual provided 20 cartilage samples. Cartilage samples were manually cut using each of the three knives, following two motions: one straight up-and-down cutting motion and parallel and one perpendicular to the blade's teeth long axis forward cutting motion. Casts of the samples were made with Mikrosil®. Image capture and processing were performed with an Olympus stereomicroscope and its software. The blade's penetration angle and inter-individual variation were shown to affect the identification of the tool class characteristics from the striation pattern observed in a kerf wall, although this seems to be related only to the degree of calcification of the costal cartilage. Intra-individual variation does not seem to significantly affect the identification of the tool class characteristics from the striation pattern observed in a kerf wall, for the same knife following the same motion. Although this study did not quantify the degree of calcification of the cartilage, this seems to be an important source of great variation regarding the interpretation of striation pattern in cartilage. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Medallo Muniz J.,Institute Medicina Legal Of Catalonia | Martin-Fumado C.,Institute Medicina Legal Of Catalonia | Nuno Vieira D.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal | Nuno Vieira D.,University of Coimbra
Medicina Clinica | Year: 2014

The problems involved in caring for individuals in custody, as well as deaths that occur during custody, are relevant aspects of legal and forensic medicine in terms of the possible criminal, civil and administrative responsibility of health professionals and/or public or private institutions that might hold individuals in custody and deprived of freedom. The rule of law should ensure that these cases comply with state law and international agreements and treaties related to human rights and the special treatment of individuals deprived of freedom in hospitals or detention centers. Of particular mention is the medical-forensic activity regarding deaths associated with the use of control holds and/or restraint during the detention of individuals by members of the armed forces or law enforcement or in healthcare centers by safety and healthcare personnel. In these cases, both the immediate healthcare treatment subsequent to the events and the medical-forensic study should be particularly careful. These situations, which are often high profile, cause social alarm and involve judicial actions that can result in especially severe liabilities. © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved. Source


Barroso M.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal | Gallardo E.,University of Beira Interior | Vieira D.N.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Legal | Lopez-Rivadulla M.,Instituto Universitario Of Medicina Legal | Queiroz J.A.,University of Beira Interior
Bioanalysis | Year: 2011

Hair has been used for years in the assessment and documentation of human exposure to drugs, as it presents characteristics that make it extremely valuable for this purpose, namely the fact that sample collection is performed in a noninvasive manner, under close supervision, the possibility of collecting a specimen reflecting a similar timeline in the case of claims or suspicion of a leak in the chain of custody, and the increased window of detection for the drugs. For these reasons, testing for drugs in hair provides unique and useful information in several fields of toxicology, from which the most prominent is the possibility of studying individual drug use histories by means of segmental analysis. This paper will review the unique role of hair as a complementary sample in documenting human exposure to drugs in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology and workplace drug testing. © 2011 Future Science Ltd. Source

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