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Brutus L.,University of Paris Descartes | Ernould J.-C.,University of Paris Descartes | Postigo J.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Romero M.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

To determine the role of pregnancy on Trypanosoma cruzi parasitemia, a matched cohort study was carried out in a rural Bolivian community comparing parasite rates in gravidae, puerperae, and non-pregnant infected women. A selection of 67 chronically infected women, who delivered between March 2004 and May 2005, were initially evaluated during the third trimester of pregnancy and again after delivery. They were matched for age, parity, and location with 104 seropositive non-pregnant women, who likewise had submitted blood for microscopic examination for T. cruzi parasites in June 2005. Seroreactive pregnant women had a higher rate of T. cruzi parasitemia (14.9%) than matched non-pregnant infected women (2.9%; P = 0.004). After delivery, parasitemia significantly decreased during puerperium (1.5%) compared with the period of pregnancy (14.9%; P = 0.03). This study showed an increase of parasite loads in maternal peripheral blood, during the third trimester, and a significant decline after delivery. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Chippaux J.-P.,IRD Montpellier | Chippaux J.-P.,University of Paris Descartes | Chippaux J.-P.,Instituto Nacional Of Laboratorios Of Salud Inlasa | Postigo J.R.,IRD Montpellier
Toxicon | Year: 2014

No information has been yet published on snakebite in Bolivia. The country includes very different ecological situations leading to various epidemiological risks. A study has been carried out to evaluate the incidence and location of snakebite, particularly in relation with altitude, in order to improve management. Investigations on snakebite epidemiology were based on a) cases treated in health facilities as reported by health authorities and b) household surveys carried out in areas with high variations of altitude, in various regions of Bolivia. An average of 700 bites was treated each year in Bolivia (national annual incidence = 8 bites per 100,000 people) with a great disparity between districts. Household surveys showed annual incidences ranged from 30 to 110 bites per 100,000 inhabitants depending on location. Annual mortality ranged 0.1-3.9 per 100,000 people. A significant and constant inverse correlation was shown between snakebite incidence and altitude, which may be explained by both snake and human distributions and activities. Notification of snakebite is useful for improving patient management and informing antivenom distribution. It should also involve the report of deaths and clinical details of envenomation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Salas Clavijo N.A.,IRD Montpellier | Postigo J.R.,IRD Montpellier | Schneider D.,IRD Montpellier | Schneider D.,University of Paris Descartes | And 6 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2012

Congenital transmission of Chagas disease stand out as a major public health problem since the vector control was performed in all endemic areas and has shown its effectiveness. An epidemiological study was performed in three maternity hospitals of the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia from 2006 to 2008. The serological screening for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was carried out in 15,767 pregnant women. Chagas infection was detected in 3725 women (23.6%), who gave birth to 125 newborns infected by T. cruzi at birth, representing an incidence of 790 per 100,000 births during a period of 16 months and a vertical transmission rate by 3.4%. There was a significant difference between hospitals that might be explained by socio-economic origins of mothers and diagnostic constraints. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Lardeux F.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Depickere S.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Aliaga C.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Chavez T.,Instituto Nacional Of Laboratorios Of Salud Inlasa | Zambrana L.,Gabriel Rene Moreno Autonomous University
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Background: Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Methods: Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestanswere identified, and an ecohealth intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. Results: The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Conclusions: Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. © The author 2015.

Pallecchi L.,University of Siena | Riccobono E.,University of Siena | Sennati S.,University of Siena | Trigoso C.,University of Florence | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

In this work, we have characterized two small ColE-like plasmids (pECY6-7, 2.7 kb in size, and pECC14-9, of 3.0 kb), encoding the QnrB19 quinolone resistance determinant, that were carried by several clonally unrelated quinolone-resistant commensal Escherichia coli strains isolated from healthy children living in different urban areas of Peru and Bolivia. The two plasmids are closely related to each other and carry the qnrB19 gene as the sole resistance determinant, located in a conserved genetic context between the plasmid RNAII sequence (which controls plasmid replication) and the plasmid Xer site (involved in plasmid dimer resolution). ISEcp1-like or other putative insertion sequences are not present in the qnrB19-flanking regions or elsewhere on the plasmids. Since we previously observed a high prevalence (54%) of qnrB genes in the metagenomes of commensal enterobacteria from the same population of healthy children, the presence of pECY6-7- and pECC14-9-like plasmids in those qnrB-positive metagenomes was investigated by PCR mapping. Both plasmids were found to be highly prevalent (67% and 16%, respectively) in the qnrB-positive metagenomes, suggesting that dissemination of these small plasmids played a major role in the widespread dissemination of qnrB genes observed in commensal enterobacteria from healthy children living in those areas. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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