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De Lyra M.C.C.P.,Instituto Agronomico Of Pernambuco Ipa | Santos D.C.,Instituto Agronomico Of Pernambuco Ipa | Da Silva M.L.R.B.,Instituto Agronomico Of Pernambuco Ipa | Mondragon-Jacobo C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas Y Pecuarias Inifap | Martinez-Romero E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The cactus pear has great importance in human feeding in Mexico and also for export of fruits. Around 8000 years ago in Mexico, Opuntia was domesticated for human consumption. The high capacity of prickly-pear cactus for vegetative propagation has contributed to its wide-spread distribution, even to the extent of becoming a weed. In secondary diversification areas of introduction, the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Opuntia were modified. Studies using biosystematics and morphology demonstrated a relationship with other Opuntoideae. The internal transcribed spacer region nuclear ribosomal DNA was sequenced in 17 species for phylogeny. These findings indicate that the ITS region in Opuntoideae should be further exploited as a promising source of nuclear phylogeny markers for Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill), Opuntia robusta, Opuntia albicarpa, Opuntia streptacantha although this last one is not well characterized in this study. The need of larger studies with molecular and morphologic markers in these species is very important. The results of phylogeny analysis of Opuntia species suggests a new revision in the taxonomy mainly when we observed that a very big group was formed with several cactus pear cultivars and that makes us to conclude in this study that these plants can be possible hybrids which is a difficulty of characterizing in a safe way the species of the family Opuntiodeae.

Fenochio A.O.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Avila H.R.V.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas Y Pecuarias Inifap | Lopez N.S.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hernandez J.A.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Garcia A.M.T.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Revista Mexicana De Ciencias Pecuarias | Year: 2013

It was evaluated in multiparous Columbia ewes their ability to recognize their offspring (8 or 12 h postpartum), and in lambs their ability to recognize their mothers (12 or 24 h after birth), plus the spectral characteristics of the bleating of the litter (24 and 48 h of age). There were two experimental groups, one with nutritional restriction during the second half of gestation (Restricted, 70 % of their requirements in protein and energy from d 70 post conception, n= 24) and another without nutritional restriction (Control, 100 % of their requirements during pregnancy, n= 11). Nutritional restricted mothers to 8 h, showed no ability to discriminate the own and alien lamb (P>0.05), but at 12 h, they could do so. While control females were able to discriminate its own lamb from an alien one since 8 h, they spent more time near their offspring than the others and looked them for longer period (P<0.05). While lambs from restricted group at 12 h were not able to discriminate against an alien mother (P<0.05), but they could do so at 24 h. While lambs of control group were able to discriminate against an alien mother since 12 h after birth (spend longer time near their mother and looked for longer time compared to the alien dam, P<0.05). The spectral characteristics of the vocalizations of the lambs were not influenced by the nutritional treatment of their mothers during pregnancy P<0.05). It was concluded that nutritional restriction during gestation delays the recognition mother-lamb, without alters apparently the spectrum of vocalizations in lambs.

Sachman-Ruiz B.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Sachman-Ruiz B.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas Y Pecuarias Inifap | Narvaez-Padilla V.,Autonomous University of the State of Morelos | Reynaud E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Biological Invasions | Year: 2015

The rapid decline in range and relative abundance of some wild North American bumble bee species, combined with the commercialization of bumble bee colonies as agricultural pollinators, and recent evidence that bumble bees can be infected by honey bee viruses, suggest the possibility that invasive and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) may play a substantial current and future role in the decline of wild bumble bee populations. Pollination in North American greenhouses is primarily mediated by industrially produced Bombus impatiens colonies. The use of B. impatiens is preferred in greenhouses because it is a native species of East North America and they are very efficient pollinators. However, B. impatiens is also host of various viruses that have been associated with colony collapse disorder in honey bees, as well as hosts to a number of bumble bee-specific pathogens and parasites. In this study, we used qPCR to screen adult worker bumble bees collected from 120 different greenhouses in central Mexico. Fifty-four locations were positive for one or more pathogens (45 %). The most frequently detected pathogen was Apicystis bombi, which was present in 32 colonies. Of these 32 A. bombi positive colonies, 15 were co-infected with at least one other pathogen or parasite, such as Locustacarus buchneri, Nosema bombi, or the viral pathogens ABPV, CBPV, DWV, IAPV and KBV. Routine use of this type of screening technology together with policy changes to restrict pathogen infested commercial bumble bees should help improve the selection of healthy commercial colonies of B. impatiens and could lead to a higher efficiency in greenhouse pollination thus providing better environmental conservation of natural Bombus spp. by preventing spillover of EIDs. © 2015, The Author(s).

The growing market of functional beverages requires characterize specifically the sources of bio-actives to select those with the highest quantity of the compound needed in the formulation. The composition of phenolic acids and the content of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, from aqueous extracts of the calyxes of three varieties of jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were assessed using HPLC-DAD: dark red (Sudan), light red (Criolla Nayarit) and white (Alma Blanca). Antioxidant activity was also determined. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replications. The highest contents of total phenolic acids were detected in Sudan and Alma Blanca (10.71±0.29 and 8.22±0.30 mg GAE g-1 DM). The fraction of free phenolic acids (FPA) was abundant and was highly complex in the calyxes of the three colors. Chlorogenic acid and its two isomers were predominant in the FPA, and the glycosylated phenolic acids (GPA) accounted for 77.4 to 81.5 % of the total phenolic acids in the three varieties. The white Alma Blanca calyxes contained more caffeic and protocatechuic acid derivatives than the red calyxes of the other varieties. The highest antioxidant activity (p≤0.05) was found in the Sudan extract (CI50=113.3 μg mL-1). The color of the calyxes can indicate the predominant type of phenols in H. sabdariffa L. and aid in the selection of varieties for formulations with particular nutraceutical properties.

Vazquez-Carrillo M.G.,Campo experimental Bajio | Alfonso Aguirre-Gomez J.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas Y Pecuarias Inifap
Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana | Year: 2015

In order to prevent irreversible loss of maize landraces (Zea mays L.), their collection, preservation and characterization is recommended. This study assessed nutritional, functional and industrial potentials of native corns from Northern El Bajío collected in 2011. Twenty four samples of races with white, red and black kernels, including Cónico Norteño, Chalqueño, Celaya, Bolita, Ratón, Tuxpeño and Mushito races, were evaluated for oil content, fatty acid profiles, total soluble phenols, anthocyanins content in colored kernels, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Grain nixtamalization quality was also assessed. Oil content (4.11 to 6.29 [%]) was similar to those reported elsewhere. Oil content showed an average of 40 [%] oleic acid, 37 [%] linoleic acid, 3 [%] stearic and 12 [%] palmitic acid. On average, native corns of Celaya race showed the highest content of total soluble phenols (114.1 to 164 mg EAG/100 g). Anthocyanin content of colored corn varied widely, from 86.9 to 575 mg EC3G/100 g. Samples were heterogeneous in terms of grain size, hardness and color. Predominantly grains showed an intermediate soft hardness with a soft-floating rate, averaging 73 [%]. Tortillas made with colored grains showed very good quality, with excellent yield and a smooth texture when freshly made, as well as after 24 h in storage. Native corns 722 and 725 are excellent candidates for oil production given their high oil content (6.5 [%]). Meanwhile, native corn 353 showed outstanding anthocyanin content suitable for the food industry and corn 632 showed high tortilla yield of 1.6 kg/kg corn dough.

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