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Diaz Lugo A.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | Alvarez Castillo R.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | Mendez Martinez J.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | Gonzalez Rodriguez L.V.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | And 2 more authors.
Zootecnia Tropical | Year: 2015

The fisheries community of Rio Seco is located in the western area of Falcon State; its fishing areas are circumscribed to the Gulf of Venezuela. The white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti is their main objective resource and it is captured by hand with drift-nets; during this fishing process, they can also capture species that do not want to fish, considered as bycatch. This study analyzes biological, ecological, environmental and fisheries aspects associated to the captured by catch, so standard techniques and methodologies of fisheries science were used (size, weight, sex ratio, maturity structure), ecological indexes (S, d, Hʹλ), also information was obtained on environmental variables in 16 fishing areas, covering a total of 43 Km2 of the Gulf of Venezuela. Nonparametric statistical methods (multidimensional scaling or MDS and ANOSIM) and parametric (main component or PCA) were applied. In total, 14 families, represented in 27 species were identifi ed. The family Sciaenidae better represented in number of species, and space in time was. Macrodon ancylodon, Micropogonias furnieri, Genyatremus luteus and Trichiurus lepturus were the most abundant species during the study. It was determined that 67% of the total number of captured species tends to be of commercial interest. Diversity was 1.50 bits/ind and Dominance (λ) 0.79. Results indicate that the environmental variable (precipitation) models the physico-chemical structure of the study area, which temporarily coincided with the main values of Hʹ. © 2015, Zootecnia Tropical. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Chile and Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

Ugni molinae Turcz. is a native shrub of Chile, known for its edible berries and its leaves, which have been the focus of recent attention, as a good source of phenolic compounds to be used in cosmetics and food products. The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts from the leaves of 10 genotypes of U. molinae, that were cultivated under the same soil, climate and agronomical management. Antioxidant activity was assessed by complementary methods (ORAC-Fl, FRAP and DPPH assay), phenolic composition of each extract was analyzed by LC-MS. Phenolic and flavonoid total contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and AlCl3 methods. Significative differences were found by these methods, and ellagitannins, gallic acid derivatives and flavonols were identified as responsible for these differences, showing the influence of the genotype on the phenolic composition of U. molinae leaves.

Inappropriate soil management practices that have been applied in the Yaracuy River basin, Venezuela, have led to the loss of soil organic matter and crop productivity. The incorporation of composted organic residues has been suggested as an alternative management practice in order to increase organic matter (OM) content and crop yield in these soils. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different application rates of an organic fertilizer obtained from sugarcane industry wastes, filter cake and bagasse with or without inorganic fertilizers, on microbial biomass carbon (MB-C), soil organic carbon (SOC), maize (Zea mays L.) yield and N, P, K content in the maize leaves, in Yaracuy River basin. The experiments were established in an acid soil and an alkaline soil, both of them with low OM contents. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with seven treatments and three repetitions. It was found that the highest MB-C, SOC and maize yield were obtained with the combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers: 160 kg N ha-1 + 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 + 80 kg K2O ha-1 + 2000 kg ha-1 organic fertilizer. In the alkaline soil this treatment increased the MB-C and SOC with respect to the control by approximately 97 %, and 43 %, and in the acid soil by 48 % and 43 %. A linear statistically significant correlation was found between MB-C and the SOC in the alkaline soil. Maize yield and MB-C, N, P, K content in the maize leaves were found to be significantly correlated in both soils.

Uriarte N.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Agrati D.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Banchero G.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | Gonzalez A.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | And 6 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2012

We have investigated whether the chemical components of fetal fluids (FFs), which elicit repulsion in late gestating ewes, are also those responsible for the attractiveness of fetal fluids at parturition. An aqueous fraction of FFs (A1), obtained after extraction with hexane, was tested for repulsion in late-pregnant ewes and for attraction at parturition. We also investigated if the repulsive and attractive characteristics of this A1 fraction were maintained after an additional extraction with dichloromethane (DCM, CH2Cl2) that produced two more fractions (aqueous/high polarity: A2 and dichloromethane/medium polarity: DCM). Thus, late-pregnant ewes were tested for repulsion of aqueous extracts of FFs (A1, A2 and DCM fractions) in a two-choice test of food preference, whereas parturient ewes were tested for attraction toward these same fractions in a two-choice test of licking warm spongy cloths. The A1 fraction was repulsive to late-pregnant ewes and attractive to parturient females. In contrast, neither the A2 nor the DCM fractions were repulsive to late-pregnant ewes, whereas both fractions were attractive to parturient ones. The discordance between the repulsive and attractive properties of the A2 and DCM fractions suggests that the attractiveness of FFs for parturient ewes and its repulsiveness for females outside the peripartum period depend on mixtures of substances that are at least partially different. Some compounds with high and medium polarity in the A2 and DCM fractions would act synergistically to generate the repulsiveness of FFs, whereas both high and medium polarity compounds can evoke attraction independently of each other. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Monneveux P.,International Potato Center | Ramirez D.A.,International Potato Center | Pino M.-T.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia
Plant Science | Year: 2013

Drought tolerance is a complex trait of increasing importance in potato. Our knowledge is summarized concerning drought tolerance and water use efficiency in this crop. We describe the effects of water restriction on physiological characteristics, examine the main traits involved, report the attempts to improve drought tolerance through in vitro screening and marker assisted selection, list the main genes involved and analyze the potential interest of native and wild potatoes to improve drought tolerance. Drought tolerance has received more attention in cereals than in potato. The review compares these crops for indirect selection methods available for assessment of drought tolerance related traits, use of genetic resources, progress in genomics, application of water saving techniques and availability of models to anticipate the effects of climate change on yield. It is concluded that drought tolerance improvement in potato could greatly benefit from the transfer of research achievements in cereals. Several promising research directions are presented, such as the use of fluorescence, reflectance, color and thermal imaging and stable isotope techniques to assess drought tolerance related traits, the application of the partial root-zone drying technique to improve efficiency of water supply and the exploitation of stressful memory to enhance hardiness. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Gonzalez A.,Fundacion para la Investigacion Agricola Danac | Labrin N.,Fundacion para la Investigacion Agricola Danac | Alvarez R.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | Jayaro Y.,Fundacion para la Investigacion Agricola Danac | And 3 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2012

Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundación Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundación Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (1): 105-117. Epub 2012 March 01.

Paz Marty A.,GranaSur Tinfol S.A. | Castillo A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | Zoppolo R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The pomegranate (Punica granatum) was presumably introduced in Uruguay by Spanish immigrants during the XVIII century. The type of pomegranate introduced was 'Mollar', with yellow rind, pink and sweet arils with medium hard seeds being used mainly for self-consumption. The need of new alternatives in fruit growing has promoted new developments with this crop. Since 2008 in a joint project between the private sector and the National Agricultural Research Institute (INIA), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), more than 50 cultivars of diverse origins were introduced and the first commercial plantations were implanted with 'Wonderful' plants. Most of the varietal introduction was made from the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Wolfskill, USA, of selected cultivars by Dr. Gregory Levin. These cultivars were introduced in the form of cuttings and multiplied in vitro after adjustment of protocols. With these plants, assessment blocks were installed and some of the cultivars were selected for commercial plantations. The results of in vitro multiplication were not equal for all cultivars, having some that were easily propagated while others had fairly low propagation rates. The first commercial plantations of 'Wonderful' were introduced in the spring of 2009 and planted in a tree spacing of 4 by 2 m (1250 plants/ha); harvesting of the first fruit took place in the fall of 2011.

Dutra F.,Direccion Of Laboratorios Veterinarios Dilave | Banchero G.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011

The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that parturition duration is related to birth asphyxia in lambs and that asphyxia affects newborn lamb viability and vigor. Two sire and dam genotypes (Texel: TX; Polwarth: PW) and their crosses were represented in the study. Eighty lambs (25 PW sire × PW dam, 13 TX × TX, 25 TX × PW, and 17 PW × TX) born to 69 grazing ewes were used. At birth, the log10 length of the second stage of parturition, birth weight, placental weight, and several body measurements were recorded on all lambs, and jugular blood samples were analyzed with the i-Stat Portable Clinical Analyzer (Abbott, Montevideo, Uruguay). A modified Apgar viability score at birth and lamb behavior during their first hour of life were recorded. Brain weight, muscle:bone ratio, and bone density were recorded in 20 male lambs (5 from each breed group) that were euthanized and dissected 24 h after birth. Data were analyzed by linear regression, least squares ANOVA, and ordinal and binary logistic regressions. Mean blood gas and acid-base variables were 7.21 ± 0.09 for pH, 18.4 ± 9.8 mmHg for partial pressure of oxygen, 53 ± 12.5 mmHg for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and -4 ± 5.1 mmol/L for extracellular fluid base excess. Parturition duration increased with birth weight (P < 0.001) and was shorter in TX ewes (P < 0.001), female lambs (P < 0.05), twins (P < 0.09), and twin females (sex × litter size interaction, P < 0.02). Twenty-six (32.9%) lambs were born asphyxiated (pO2 < 10 mmHg or pH <7.1). Parturition duration increased the risk of asphyxia (P < 0.001), decreased the viability score (P < 0.001), and increased the latency to suckle the udder (P < 0.05). Twin-born lambs presented at birth a 16-fold greater risk of asphyxia (P < 0.01) and reduced placental efficiency (P < 0.05). Texel-sired lambs appeared immature at birth, with less bone density (P < 0.05), smaller brain (P < 0.05), shorter forelimbs (P < 0.05), greater anterior (P < 0.001) and posterior (P < 0.05) neck circumference, and greater muscle:bone ratio (P < 0.05). Immaturity may explain greater TX biotype survival. Together these results demonstrate that a relationship exists between parturition duration, neonatal viability and behavior, and acid-base balance values in single- and twin-born lambs, suggesting that birth asphyxia is an important risk factor in perinatal lamb mortality. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

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