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PubMed | Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation, CNRS Sophia Agrobiotech Institute, Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and Austral University of Chile
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule.

Studies were conducted on irrigated in three rice fields located at the Rio Guárico Irrigation System in Calabozo Venezuela, between 2001 and 2004. The objective was to determine the spatial distribution of Oebalus insularis Stal in rice fields. The population characteristics were studied by using to s2√X relations, Morissita index and Tayloŕs power law and lwaós index. The insect's field spatial distribution was aggregated or contagious. The population distribution adjusted to the negative binomial mathematical model.

Zambrano-Nava S.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Boscan-Ocando J.,University of Zulia | Nava J.,University of Zulia
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2011

In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N=102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

To evaluate the effect of age on crude protein (CP), in vitro digestibility of organic matter (IVOMD) and mineral concentration, of pasture Cenhrus profile. ciliaris (Cc). - Leucaena leucocephala (Ll) association, a study was conducted in a semiarid region of Zulia state. Four ages of shear were evaluated (42, 84.126 and 168 days), subdividing the profile into three strata pasture Cc: 0-15, 15-30, over 30 and Ll: 0-60, 60-120, over 120 height respectively. A randomized block design with comparison of means by Duncan (P<0.05) was used to analyze data. The average percentage of PC found was 8.34 and 22.50% in the Cc and Ll respectively, showing the greatest tenors in the middle and top of the plant. The IVOMD increased in the upper third of the grass and in the lower two thirds of the legume. Macrominerals levels in the Cc, recorded was below established critical ranges and were affected in different manner by both maturity and profile of the plant. In the LL, no signs of deficiency in essential macronutrients, with the exception of P and Na and they were not affected by the maturity of the plant through their profile.

Fernandez J.G.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Garcia F.,Central University of Venezuela
Zootecnia Tropical | Year: 2015

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide and an important agent that induces neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goats, deer and horses in many countries. N. caninum antibodies in bovine blood can be demonstrated by serological assays such as the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), direct agglutination test, or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The present study was done to determine the prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in eight dual purpose cattle farms in Tucacas region, Falcon state, Venezuela. The prevalence of N. caninum in the ELISA was 20.6%. There was no significant differences (P>0.05) by breed effect in Bos taurus (25.9%) and Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses (18.9%). The seropositivity animals included 36 of 152 (23.7%) adult cows, 8 of 53 (15.1%) heifers, and 0 of 8 (0.0%) calves. The association between seropositivity and age was no significant differences (P>0.05). No crossreactivity was found between N. caninum antigens for the ELISA and T. gondii antigens for the hemaglutination inhibition test in sera of cattle with natural infection. © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas (INIA). All rights reserved.

Alvarez C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Perez E.,Central University of Venezuela | Cros E.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Lares M.,Central University of Venezuela | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

Cocoa is an important raw material in international trade, for which the highest quality is demanded. Venezuelan Criollo cocoa beans from the south of Lake Maracaibo or Chuao are of very high quality and are considered to be Venezuela's finest beans. It is therefore important to characterise and define that quality, or its precursors, in the different primary cocoa processing stages. Given the large number of samples to be analysed, new analytical techniques providing fast and reliable quality data are essential. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy utilises wavelengths from 780-2500 nm to measure the absorbance by a sample, compute organic functional groups and quantitatively predict a particular factor. It has been extensively used to analyse food quality and to determine the main alkaloids of coffee. Fat, caffeine, theobromine and (-)-epicatechin contents are related to cocoa bean "flavour" quality. These parameters are usually determined using conventional methods, which are time consuming, destructive and expensive. The goals of this study were to use NIR spectroscopy to develop a fast and non-destructive tool to determine compounds in unfermented and sun-dried cocoa beans of high quality. Calibration coefficients of determination (R2) and standard errors of cross-validation were 0.94 and 0.89%, 0.94 and 0.05%, 0.88 and 0.08% and 0.96 and 0.18% for fat, caffeine, theobromine and (-)-epicatechin contents (% dry matter), respectively. The results confirmed the good predictability of the models and showed that NIR spectroscopy can be used as a rapid method for determining these compounds in cocoa beans. © 2012 IM Publications LLP.

Paredes J.,University of the East Venezuela | Hernandez R.,University of the East Venezuela | Canizares A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia
Idesia | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maturity on pectin content of guava shells (Psidium guajava L.) growing red supreme Cuban. This was a completely randomized design of three levels (growth stages of maturity) and four replicates. The dependent variables are the physical and chemical parameters (pH, ash content, percentage of degree of esterification, methoxyl content, content galacturonic acid anhydrous equivalent mass and gel strength). Analyses were performed by triplicate except that gel strength was performed in quintuplicate. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, where significant differences applied a leastsignificant difference test (MDS) at 5%, using the statistical package SAS 2004. The pectin extracted presented a performance of 5.49% for green guavas, 5.24% for pintonas, and 4.77% for mature. The characteristics of the pectin extracted guavas hulls differed in all analyzed quantitative parameters except the ash content. The physicochemical characteristics of pectins state guava green and mature pintón were: pH 4.16, 4.11 and 4.01, ash content 1.40%, 1.69% and 1.80%, degree of esterification 88.58%, 80.53% and 64.60% methoxyl content of 2.53%, 1.64% and 0.83%, galacturonic acid content of 16.15%, 11.58% and 7.27% 9807.16 equivalent mass meq/mg, 7920.07 meq/mg and 6914.76 meq/mg and gel strength of 0.414 N, 0.149 N and 0.050 N, respectively. All parameters were a progressive decline in their values due to the physiological process of the fruit. © 2015, Universidad de Tarapaca. All rights reserved.

Berlingeri C.,University of Alicante | Berlingeri C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Crespo M.B.,University of Alicante
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2012

A prerequisite in any conservation programme of Plant Genetic Resources is estimation of diversity. The inventory of wild and naturalized relatives of priority crops in Venezuela (CWR) is based on the main Catalogues of Flora in the country, selecting taxa closely related to crops, according to the concepts of "gene pool" and "taxonomic group". We included 47 genera, 217 species and 228 taxa belonging to 28 plant families. Among them, those with higher richness are: Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Araceae, Lauraceae, Dioscoreaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Myrtaceae. Genera with a higher number of species are Xanthosoma, Persea, Dioscorea, Prunus, Psidium, Phaseolus, Solanum, Vigna, Capsicum, Manihot, Theobroma, Ipomoea and Oryza. A total of 26 endemic species are found, which belong to genera Xanthosoma, Persea, Dioscorea, Prunus and Manihot. The primary gene pool of crops include native species from genera such as Manihot, Solanum (Section Petota), Lycopersicon, Ananas, Capsicum, Dioscorea, Xanthosoma, Phaseolus, Theobroma, Ipomoea, Gossypium, Arracacia and Psidium. Genera with native species weakly related to crops are Saccharum, Persea, Ipomoea, Prunus, Vigna, Solanum (Section Melongena) and Daucus. Crop genera without native species in Venezuela are Allium, Musa, Brassica, Spinacia, Helianthus, Pisum, Lactuca, Citrus, Elaeis, Beta, Glycine and Triticum. Only a few taxa have already been evaluated according to the IUCN criteria, and Venezuelan accessions of crop wild relatives in national and international genebanks are very scarce. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Belandria J.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Morillo N.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia
Zootecnia Tropical | Year: 2013

Industrial processing of crustaceans generate a significant amount of waste (10000 TM per year), which can be used as excellent raw material in different industrial processes. To evaluate by-products obtained from solid wastes generated from industrial processing of shrimp, proximate composition was determined in shrimp meals from two processing plants in the State of Zulia, Venezuela. Five samples by variety of meals (head and shell of shrimp) were analyzed by AOAC methods, to moisture, proteins, ashes, fats, calcium, phosphorus, astaxanthin and amino acids. By-products of shrimp head had highest values (P<0.05) of protein 50.72% vs 46.20% and fat 12.03% vs 1.13% than shrimp shell meal. Shrimp meals are an excellent source of astaxanthin with values of 38.59 and 55.71 μg/g in shell and head shrimp, respectively. Evaluation of amino acid content in shrimp meal, presents essential amino acids, as methionine with 4.35 vs 0.65 g/100 g, lysine 6.98 vs 6.19 g/100 g, arginine 19.22 vs 5.89 g/100, phenylalanine 6.71 vs 2.83 g/100 g, valine 4.22 vs 3.10 g/100 g, isoleucine 1.21 vs 3.37 g/100 g, tryptophan 8.19 vs 5.77 g/100 g and histidine 6.50 vs 4.43 g/100 g in head and shell shrimp, respectively. These products are an excellent source of nutrients due to its high biological value and can contribute in various industrial processes are of great importance in the food chain.

Montilla R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia | Ramos F.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agricolas Inia
Entomotropica | Year: 2016

Sections of plant samples of Eranthemum sp. L. highly infested with Saissetia coffeae, were placed in breeding chambers for the emergence of biological controllers. Eleven kinds of entomophagous insects were obtained, which were identified as: Azia orbigera orbigera (Coccinellidae); Coccobius sp., Coccophagus scutellaris, Coccophagus ceroplastae (Aphelinidae); Metaphycus sp. (Encyrtidae); Aprostocetus spp. (Eulophidae); Scutellista sp. (Pteromalidae); Chartocerus sp. y Signiphora sp. (Signiphoridae). It is noteworthy, that some species of Aprostocetus was found parasitising A. orbigera. larvae. The species of Aphelinidae, Encyrtidae, Eulophidae and Pteromalidae mentioned are new insights into the parasitic insect fauna of this pest in Venezuela. © 2016, Sociedad Venezolana de Entomología.

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