Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia

Madrid, Spain

Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia

Madrid, Spain
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Sanchez-Gomez D.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Robson T.M.,University of Helsinki | Gasco A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Gasco A.,IE University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Patterns of intraspecific variation in functional traits have been widely studied across plant species to find out what general suites of traits provide functional advantage under specific environmental conditions. Much less is known about this variation within tree species and, in particular, about its relationship with performance variables such as photosynthetic rates under water deficit. Nevertheless, this knowledge is fundamental to understand the adaptive potential of drought sensitive tree species to increased aridity as predicted in the context of climate change. Intraspecific variation in photosynthetic performance and other leaf functional traits in response to water availability were examined in a glasshouse experiment using seedlings of six European beech populations. The physiological response of seedlings to a "water stress" treatment was compared to a "control" treatment along an experimental cycle of progressive soil water deficit and recovery. We found evidence of intraspecific variation in beech's photosynthetic performance and other leaf functional traits in response to water availability. We also detected intraspecific variation in leaf-level tolerance of water deficit and phenotypic plasticity to water availability suggesting a pattern shaped by both regional and local scale effects. The Swedish population was particularly sensitive to water deficit, being the only population showing impaired photochemical efficiency under the experimental water deficit. Leaf-level tolerance of water deficit was related to PNUE, but not to other functional traits, such as WUE, SLA or leaf nitrogen content, that have been described to vary across species in adaptation to drought tolerance. Our results support the idea that general trends for variation in functional traits across species do not necessarily reflect a similar pattern when observed at the intraspecific level. The observed functional variation between beech populations reaffirms the importance of local adaptation to water deficit in the context of climate change. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM and Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary pathology | Year: 2014

Using eye samples of nine 9-week-old experimentally West Nile virus (WNV)-infected red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), time course of lesions and WNV antigen appearance in ocular structures were examined. In addition, eye samples of 6 red-legged partridges and 3 common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) naturally infected with Bagaza virus (BAGV) were used to study lesions and flavivirus antigen distribution in relation to apparent blindness in the former. The rapid onset of microscopic lesions and early presence of viral antigen in the eye of experimentally WNV-infected partridges, prior to the central nervous system involvement, suggested hematogenous spread of the virus into the eye. BAGV-infected partridges had a more pronunced inflammatory reaction and more widespread flavivirus antigen distribution in the retina compared with pheasants and experimentally fatally WNV-infected partridges. Our results suggest that flavivirus replication and development of lesions in ocular structures of gallinaceous game birds vary with the specific virus and host species involved.

Cecchinato A.,University of Padua | Gonzalez-Recio O.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Lopez de Maturana E.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Gallo L.,University of Padua | Carnier P.,University of Padua
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Different approaches for predicting genetic merit of piglet preweaning survival were compared using proportional hazard, threshold (TM), and sequential threshold (STM) models. Data were from 13,924 crossbred piglets (1,347 litters), born from 2000 to 2006, and originated by mating 189 Large White C21 Gorzagri boars to 328 Large White-derived crossbred sows. A frailty proportional hazard model was fitted assuming 2 different baseline hazard functions (Cox and Weibull time-dependent model) and including sire and nursed litter as random effects. The TM and STM included the same effects as considered in the proportional hazard model. Model fitting was evaluated in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated using the local weighted regression and the mean squared error, whereas the predictive ability was assessed by using a cross-validation procedure. Estimated sire variances for piglet preweaning mortality were low, and heritability ranged from 0.04 to 0.06. All 4 models led to similar ranking of sires. Results suggest that STM may be preferred to the other models for genetic evaluation of piglet preweaning survival, both for its better predictive ability and its easier interpretation. Further, STM is computationally less demanding than survival models and allows for estimating different variance components from birth up to weaning. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Rodriguez-Calcerrada J.,Technical University of Madrid | Rodriguez-Calcerrada J.,Center cologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive | Pardos J.A.,Technical University of Madrid | Aranda I.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia
Forestry | Year: 2010

To evaluate leaf physiological mechanisms involved in plant tolerance to water deficit between sites of varying overstorey density, we investigated leaf water relations of two broadleaved oaks (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) planted within a dense Scots pine stand, in a thinned adjacent area and in a nearby gap at a Mediterranean, mid-mountain field site. Leaf water parameters were estimated in established seedlings at the end of June and August over two consecutive years by measuring pressure-volume relationships with the pressure chamber technique. Plant water status was always similar in both species, and it was lower in August than June due to lower soil moisture at the end of summer. Higher light and diurnal water deficits in the gap were associated to more negative osmotic potentials. Impacts of overstorey density on some leaf water parameters depended on the species. While Q. pyrenaica showed active osmotic adjustment across sites, seedlings of Q. petraea were unable to cope with increased water deficit by osmotic adjustment in the unthinned dense area. While Q. pyrenaica showed consistent increases in the maximum bulk modulus of elasticity (εmax) from June to August across sites, εmax decreased in the unthinned dense area for seedlings of Q. petraea. These results could reflect distinct species strategies to cope with water deficit under the low-light conditions created by a dense overstorey. Higher leaf osmotic adjustment and bulk modulus of elasticity in Q. pyrenaica seedlings at peak summer drought might confer on them a competitive advantage during establishment in dry sub-Mediterranean understories. Opening of moderate canopy gaps in dense Scots pine stands improves some leaf mechanisms involved in drought tolerance in oak seedlings. © 2010 Institute of Chartered Foresters. All rights reserved.

Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Torres-Rovira L.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Ovilo C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Astiz S.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | And 5 more authors.
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2012

The current study was conducted in a swine breed (Iberian pig) with a genotype that predisposed the pig to obesity. The aim of the study was to determine the morphological, metabolomic and endocrine features of early conceptuses and to elucidate how placental gene expression (related to placentation, angiogenesis and fetal nutrition), maternal hormones and the metabolome affect the fetal environment and fetal growth. Conceptus viability and growth were found to be related to maternal endocrine (plasma progesterone levels) and metabolic features (plasma levels of leptin, cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides). These features were related to the placental expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and leptin (LEP) genes, the placental efficiency and, thus, the nutrition and the metabolism of the fetus (availability of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, as HDL-c). Viability of conceptuses in females with evidence of dyslipidemia (low plasma levels of total cholesterol due to low HDL-c concentration but high levels of triglycerides) was diminished. The availability of nutrients and metabolic substrates to the conceptus was also affected in females with higher fat deposition and evidence of dyslipidemia. In conclusion, the conceptus viability and growth appear to be strongly related to maternal metabolic features and, thus, affected in females with alterations in lipid metabolism. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sanchez-Gomez D.,Technical University of Madrid | Velasco-Conde T.,SERIDA | Cano-Martin F.J.,Technical University of Madrid | Angeles Guevara M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | And 4 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Mediterranean trees are expected to be exposed to an increased aridity in the near future. The lack of genetic variability of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) could limit the adaptation potential of the species to more severe droughts. However, information on intra-specific variability in adaptive traits that might confer potential drought tolerance is scant for stone pine. In this study, we explored the adaptation potential of stone pine to water deficit through variability of key functional traits. In particular, inter-clonal variation in whole plant performance in response to water deficit was studied. The role of inter-clonal variation in functional traits and phenotypic plasticity as determinants of whole plant performance under water deficit were also assessed. Relative growth rate (RGR) and key morphological and physiological traits were studied in ramets of 20 different clones of stone pine from a wide range of populations in the Iberian Peninsula. The plants were grown in climatic chamber under controlled environmental conditions and were submitted to an experimental water deficit of 20 days. The results showed significant inter-clonal variation in total dry mass, RGR, biomass partitioning specific leaf area (SLA), leaf area ratio (LAR), net photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs) and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). Significant phenotypic plasticity in response to drought was found for An, gs and WUEi but it did not differ among clones. The clones could be clustered into different groups according to the variability of the studied traits in a principal components analysis. LAR, SLA and net photosynthetic rates explained most of the variation. A combination of traits (high LAR and low WUEi) agreeing with a water spending strategy rather than with a water saving strategy seemed to underlie enhanced RGR under water deficit. Stone pine showed high phenotypic plasticity and significant intra-specific variation in functional traits in response to water deficit. The pattern of variation found in morphological and physiological traits might allow adaptation to short term water deficit in this species. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Gomez-Brunet A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Santiago-Moreno J.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Malpaux B.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | Chemineau P.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2012

Mouflon and domestic Manchega sheep differ in the timing of their reproductive season under natural photoperiod (NP) conditions. This study examines whether they also differ in their reproductive responses to artificial photoperiod cues. For this, mouflons (n= 24) and ewes (n= 24) were exposed between the winter and summer solstices to artificial long days (LD: 16. h light/day), to short days (SD) simulated via the use of melatonin implants, or to NP conditions (controls), and their ovulatory activity monitored. The effects of these treatments on annual changes in prolactin concentration were also recorded. In the LD mouflon ewes, the offset and onset (7 March ± 5 and 2 October ± 4, respectively) of cyclic ovulatory activity occurred earlier (P< 0.001) than in the NP animals (26 April ± 6 and 20 October ± 2, respectively), but no differences were seen (P> 0.05) between the SD and NP mouflon ewes in either the onset of anoestrus (12 May ± 6 and 26 April ± 6, respectively) or the onset of subsequent ovulatory activity (13 October ± 8 and 20 October ± 2, respectively); however the duration of the anoestrus period was significantly reduced in the SD. In LD Manchega ewes, the onset of anoestrus was advanced (2 February ± 5 vs 15 March ± 11), but ovulatory activity started at the same time as in NP Manchega ewes (16 July ± 4 vs 5 July ± 8). In the SD Manchega ewes, two animals showed continuous cyclic ovulatory activity over the course of the experiment while the remainder entered anoestrus two months later (16 May ± 6, P< 0.001) than their NP counterparts. In these SD ewes, the onset of cyclic ovarian activity was very variable. An annual rhythm of plasma prolactin concentration was seen in both the mouflon and Manchega ewes under all three photoperiod conditions. However, the amplitudes of the changes seen in prolactin concentration were smaller in both the LD and SD animals than in the corresponding NP animals (P< 0.001). In conclusion, the results show that these two types of Mediterranean sheep differ in their ovulatory response when subjected to artificial photoperiods. The results also suggest that refractoriness to SDs may be the most important physiological mechanism regulating the onset of anoestrus in highly seasonal breeds, but not in less seasonal breeds. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Martin C.,Technical University of Madrid | Cervera M.T.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Gonzalez-Benito M.E.,Technical University of Madrid
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Genetic stability in chrysanthemum (cultivar 'Pasodoble') apices was studied at each step of an encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation protocol: control shoots (A), nodal segments after cold treatment (N), apices after osmotic stress (0.3 M sucrose) and cold treatment (P), encapsulation and culture in 0.8 M sucrose (S), dehydration (D), and cryopreservation (Cr). Two different markers were employed: RAPDs and AFLPs. Throughout the process, the origin of the apices (in vitro shoot from which they were excised) was recorded. Eight complete lines (from which DNA could be amplified after all the steps considered) were studied. Two out of twelve arbitrary primers showed polymorphisms. Three RAPD markers were replaced by three new ones in the Cr sample in one line. Using a different primer, a 700 bp fragment was absent from all samples from the 0.3. M sucrose-culture step ('P') onwards, in all the lines studied. The sequences of these fragments were studied to find similarities with known sequences. Polymorphic AFLP fragments were also observed, and most of the differences appeared from step 'P' onwards, pointing out the possible effect of this process (preculture on 0.3. M sucrose) in the DNA variation. These results show that genetic variation can appear throughout the cryopreservation process, and the low temperature itself is not the only stress risk of the technique. Therefore, genetic stability of the regenerants obtained after cryopreservation should be monitored. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

Martinez-Sala R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Rodriguez-Abad I.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Diez Barra R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia | Capuz-Lladro R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

In the realm of architecture ground-penetrating radar has been used as nondestructive technique to assess physical properties of wood structures in situ. However, a better understanding of the dielectric anisotropy of timber is needed to develop this application. An experiment was conducted on samples of sawn timber of different species (densities) to study their dielectric responses according to the grain directions using a GPR with a 1.6 GHz antenna. Interesting differences were found: the propagation velocities, as well as the amplitudes of the direct and reflected waves always presented lesser when the electric field was longitudinal to the grain than when transverse. But when the field was propagated in whatever transverse direction some of those parameters not differ greatly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rodriguez-Abad I.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Martinez-Sala R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Garcia-Garcia F.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Capuz-Lladro R.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Diez Barra R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias Inia
2011 6th International Workshop on Advanced Ground Penetrating Radar, IWAGPR 2011 | Year: 2011

The dielectric response of timber to electrical fields is influenced by many factors, one of the most important being the internal structure of the wood. Thus the anisotropy of the wood should be taken into account when the ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technique is used to explore the properties of timber. The work carried out analyzes, by means of a GPR with a 1.6 GHz antenna, the dielectric behavior of Maritime Pine timber according to the direction of the electrical field with respect to the grain. After the acquisition process, the propagation velocities, amplitudes, and spectra variations were compared for all the studied grain directions. Significant differences were found between these parameters when the field was propagated in a parallel direction compared with perpendicular to the grain. However, when the field was propagated in various perpendicular directions to the grain (radial & tangential) the studied parameters were not found to differ greatly. © 2011 IEEE.

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