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Oliva-Hernandez J.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones | Marcos-Gonzalez M.,Hospital Universitario La Paz
Revista Internacional de Andrologia

Objetives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 different thawing procedures, as well as the effect of washing, on vitality, motility and sperm tail morphology from poor quality semen samples. Material and methods: Thirteen poor quality semen samples were selected from different patients according to the parameters provided by the Word Health Organization. Samples were thawed according to the following protocols: a) 25 min at room temperature; b) 15 min at room temperature followed by 10 min at 37°C; c) 5 min at 4°C followed by 10 min at room temperature and 10 min at 37°C. In order to study the washing effects all thawed samples were evaluated before and after the washing procedure. Two pellets (150 μl pellet-1) were analyzed for each thawing protocol and vitality, motility and sperm tail morphological alterations were evaluated. Results: The results obtained showed that the thawing protocol did not show any effect (p >.05) on none of the evaluated characteristic. However, washing resulted in decreased (p <.001) vitality, active motility, increased morphological sperm tail alterations (p <.001). Conclusions: These results suggest that washing rather than the thawing procedure could reduce sperm viability in poor quality sperm. © 2010 Sociedad Española de Andrología. Source

Yahia E.M.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Castellanos E.,Autonomous University of Queretaro | Mondragon-Jacobo C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones
Acta Horticulturae

Identification and quantification of betalains in ten cultivars/lines of prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) fruit were conducted with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Betacyanins and betaxanthins were identified by comparison with the UV/Vis and mass spectrometric characteristics as well as the retention times of semi-synthesized reference betaxanthins. Carotenoids and chlorophylls were also identified and quantified based on their molecular mass determined by applying HPLC-DAD coupled with Positive Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (APCI-MS). A total of 24 known/unknown betalains were present in the studied prickly pear fruit, including 18 betaxanthins and 6 betacyanins. The ratio and concentration of betalain pigments are responsible for the color in the different cultivars, showing the highest betalains content in fruit of purple color, comparable to that found in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. 'Pablo'). All cultivars/lines had a similar carotenoid profile, in which lutein was the most abundant compound in 'Camuesa', while neoxanthin was the most abundant compound in '21441'. Chlorophyll a was the most abundant in all cultivars/lines with the highest quantity in '21441'. To our knowledge, this is the first time that separation of carotenoids and chlorophylls has been reported in cactus pear fruit using mass spectroscopy. Our results indicate that prickly pear fruit can be considered as a potential source of yellow and red natural colorants. Source

Del Angel-Perez A.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones | Diaz-Padilla G.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones | Guajardo-Panez R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones | Linares- Bravo B.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones
Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems

The objective of this study was to obtain landscape fragility indexes (LFI) as a way of acquiring trustworthy data for a sustainable use of soils in the Coatepec- La Antigua basin, in Veracruz, Mexico. For collecting landscape data, an altitude transect was done from 3200 m on the east side of the Cofre de Perote mountain, up to the sea level, close to the city of Veracruz. National forestry inventory data and soil use charts were used along with GIS techniques to generate images showing landscape fragility resulting from soil use. Geographical data were contrasted with socioeconomic characteristics in the region and with the social value of landscapes for the inhabitants. Results show that high LFI (grade 5) correspond to only 2.8% of the landscape; a 22.5% were classified as medium-high (grade 4), and are related to high and medium forest in the mountain range. The most fragile areas are located in the upper parts of the basin, which is coincidental with the highest marginality indexes, the highest population density, and factors of socioeconomic fragility such as international migration fluxes and lower income. Source

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