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Pinzauti F.,National Research Council Italy | Sebastiani F.,National Research Council Italy | Budde K.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Fady B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

• Premise of the study: Pinus pinea is one of the few widespread plant species that are also genetically depauperate. It is also an important commercial species with high market value seeds. A deeper knowledge of the existing population genetic variation was needed. • Methods and Results: Twelve nuclear microsatellites were isolated from genomic and cDNA sequences and screened for variability in 729 individuals from 33 natural populations. Low level of genetic variability was confirmed with average expected heterozygosity of 0.11. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were not met in only ~10% of the possible locus/population combinations. All loci were in linkage equilibrium, and the frequency of null alleles was very low (≤ 1% in 332 out of 396 locus/ population combinations). Nine out of the 12 microsatellites were successfully transferred to P. halepensis. • Conclusions: Despite low polymorphism, these new markers will be useful to resolve population structure and hold potential for seed origin identification and traceability. © 2012 Botanical Society of America.


Borrego B.,Research Center en Sanidad Animal | Revilla C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Alvarez B.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Dominguez J.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion
Viruses | Year: 2015

The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). © 2015 by the authors.


Diaz M.T.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Vieira C.,Estacion Tecnologica de la Carne ITACyL | Perez C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lauzurica S.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The effect of slaughter at arrival (L0) or after 3 (L3), 6 (L6), 12 (L12) h of lairage on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs has been studied. Lairage time had a slight effect on carcass quality traits, but most of the meat quality parameters at 24. h post mortem were affected. Weight losses increased and glycogen content of liver and longissimus muscle decreased as lairage time increased. Longissimus muscle from L3 lambs had the highest pH, shear force and toughness and the lowest b* and C* values, at 24. h post mortem. L3 and L6 had the higher proportion of expelled juice, or low water holding capacity (WHC), at 24. h post mortem. Texture parameters and WHC were similar among groups after 5. days of storage. Despite the fact that the effects of lairage time on meat quality disappears after storage, from the point of view of weight losses the slaughter of suckling lambs at arrival is recommended. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Ghent University, Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion and University of Antwerp
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2016

Since the development of in vitro embryo production in cattle, different supplements have been added to culture media to support embryo development, with serum being the most popular. However, the addition of serum during embryo culture can induce high birthweights and low viability in calves (Large Offspring Syndrome). Analysis of global gene expression in bovine embryos produced under different conditions can provide valuable information to optimize culture media for in vitro embryo production.We used RNA sequencing to examine the effect of in vitro embryo production, in either serum-containing or serum-free media, on the global gene expression pattern of individual bovine blastocysts. Compared to in vivo derived embryos, embryos produced in serum-containing medium had five times more differentially expressed genes than embryos produced in serum-free conditions (1109 vs. 207). Importantly, in vitro production in the presence of serum appeared to have a different impact on the embryos according to their sex, with male embryos having three times more genes differentially expressed than their female counterparts (1283 vs. 456). On the contrary, male and female embryos produced in serum-free conditions showed the same number (191 vs. 192) of genes expressed differentially; however, only 44 of those genes were common in both comparisons. The pathways affected by in vitro production differed depending on the type of supplementation. For example, embryos produced in serum-containing conditions had a lower expression of genes related to metabolism while embryos produced in serum-free conditions showed aberrations in genes involved in lipid metabolism.Serum supplementation had a major impact on the gene expression pattern of embryos, with male embryos being the most affected. The transcriptome of embryos produced in serum-free conditions showed a greater resemblance to that of in vivo derived embryos, although genes involved in lipid metabolism were altered. Male embryos appeared to be most affected by suboptimal in vitro culture, i.e. in the presence of serum.


Martin-Sampedro R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Rodriguez A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Requejo A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Eugenio M.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion
BioResources | Year: 2012

This study aimed at assessing the biobleachability of soda pulps obtained from olive tree pruning residue. The enzymatic (LMS) pre-treatment was applied prior to a simple totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence, consisting of an alkaline extraction and a hydrogen peroxide stage. Additionally, the effect of adding xylanase jointly with or prior to LMS was evaluated. All of these enzymatic pre-treatments were associated with an enhancement of the bleaching sequence. The best results were found when both enzymes were applied in the same stage: lowest hydrogen peroxide consumption (63 percent); kappa number, 11.6; brightness, 46 percent ISO. The mechanical properties observed were similar to those reported by other authors who have studied pulps from olive tree pruning residue. Finally, bleached pulps were subjected to accelerated ageing in order to assess the evolution of brightness and colorimetric properties. Although biobleached pulps showed lower stability upon ageing, the best optical properties, even after ageing, were observed in pulps treated with both xylanase and laccase.


Ibanez-Escriche N.,Genetica i Millora Animal | Gonzalez-Recio O.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to review the main challenges and pitfalls of the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programs of different livestock species. Genomic selection is now one of the main challenges in animal breeding and genetics. Its application could considerably increase the genetic gain in traits of interest. However, the success of its practical implementation depends on the selection scheme characteristics, and these must be studied for each particular case. In dairy cattle, especially in Holsteins, genomic selection is a reality. However, in other livestock species (beef cattle, small ruminants, monogastrics and fish) genomic selection has mainly been used experimentally. The main limitation for its implementation in the mentioned livestock species is the high genotyping costs compared to the low selection value of the candidate. Nevertheless, nowadays the possibility of using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips of low density to make genomic selection applications economically feasible is under study. Economic studies may optimize the benefits of genomic selection (GS) to include new traits in the breeding goals. It is evident that genomic selection offers great potential; however, a suitable genotyping strategy and recording system for each case is needed in order to properly exploit it.


Martin-Sampedro R.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Eugenio M.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Revilla E.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Martin J.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Villar J.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion
BioResources | Year: 2011

Steam explosion has been proposed for a wide range of lignocellulosic applications, including fractionation of biomass, pre-treatment of biomass for ethanol production, or as an alternative to conventional mechanical pulping. Nevertheless, a steam explosion process could also be used as pretreatment before chemical pulping, expecting a reduction in cooking time due to the open structure of the exploded chips. Thus, to evaluate the effect of steam explosion as a pretreatment in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus, steam exploded chips and control chips were subjected to kraft cookings. Steam exploded chips provided pulps with reductions of kappa number by up to 70% with no significant change in viscosity. Therefore, the cooking time could be shortened by 60%, increasing the productivity and obtaining pulps with similar delignification degree to those of the control pulp. Furthermore, not only the production rate could be increased, but also most of the hemicelluloses could be recovered before pulping and converted to a value-added product. Finally, although exploded pulp had inferior mechanical strength, the optical properties, which are more important in eucalyptus pulps, were found to be better.


The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a feed restriction and several dietary additives that affect stress response on the fluctuating asymmetry of 4 traits (toe length, leg width, leg length, and wing length), heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and tonic immobility duration in chickens at 42 d of age. Chicks from a White Leghorn population were used. There were six different groups. Chicks in group 1 (feed restriction) were reared with a mean feed supply of 10 g/d. Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 consisted of chicks reared with a mean feed supply of 10 g/d with the addition of capsaicin (50 ppm), α-tocopherol (250 ppm), allicin (0.02%), and niacin (250 ppm), respectively. Chicks in group 6 (control) were reared with a mean feed supply of 25 g/d. Feed restriction effect was significant (P < 0.05) for the fluctuating asymmetry of wing length and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, both being greater in feed restricted chicks without any additive and smaller in control chicks. Fluctuating asymmetry of wing length, combined fluctuating asymmetry of the 4 traits, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio for feed restricted chicks with capsaicin were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of feed restricted chicks without capsaicin. The addition of niacin and α-tocopherol to the diet of chicks under feed restriction resulted in lower fluctuating asymmetry of wing length (P < 0.05) in comparison with that of feed restricted chicks without any additive. In conclusion, a severe restricted dietis associated with the stressfulness of chicks, and dietary capsaicin supplementation is effective to alleviate the stress induced by a severe feed restriction in young chickens. Whether this compound will be efficient in laying hens and broiler breeders has still to be proved. © Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart.


Ruiz M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Giraldo P.,Technical University of Madrid | Royo C.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Carrillo J.M.,Technical University of Madrid
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Spanish wheat (Triticum spp.) landraces have a considerable polymorphism, containing many unique alleles, relative to other collections. The existence of a core collection is a favored approach for breeders to efficiently explore novel variation and enhance the use of germplasm. In this study, the Spanish durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) core collection (CC) was created using a population structure-based method, grouping accessions by subspecies and allocating the number of genotypes among populations according to the diversity of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The CC of 94 genotypes was established, which accounted for 17% of the accessions in the entire collection. An alternative core collection (CH), with the same number of genotypes per subspecies and maximizing the coverage of SSR alleles, was assembled with the Core Hunter software. The quality of both core collections was compared with a random core collection and evaluated using geographic, agromorphological, and molecular marker data not previously used in the selection of genotypes. Both core collections had a high genetic representativeness, which validated their sampling strategies. Geographic and agromorphological variation, phenotypic correlations, and gliadin alleles of the original collection were more accurately depicted by the CC. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers revealed that the CC included genotypes less similar than the CH. Although more SSR alleles were retained by the CH (94%) than by the CC (91%), the results showed that the CC was better than CH for breeding purposes. © Crop Science Society of America.


Militelli M.I.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Rodrigues K.A.,CONICET
Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2011

Histological examinations of gonads of Serranus auriga confirmed that the species is always a functional simultaneous hermaphrodite with external fertilization. Sections of the gonads revealed that the dominant tissue was ovarian and each lobe was covered by smooth muscle and connective tissue, the tunica albuginea. The presence, in mature individuals, of hydrated oocytes and sperm within the ovotestis suggested the possibility of external self-fertilization. Descriptions based on microscopic examinations of ovarian and testicular tissues are given.

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