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Navarro J.-C.,Laboratory Of Entomologia | Navarro J.-C.,Central University of Venezuela | Ponce P.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica Inspi | Ponce P.,University of the Americas in Chile | Cevallos V.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica Inspi
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental | Year: 2013

Two new records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented from Ecuador, and both potential vectors of yellow fever virus and Mayaro. Sabethes amazonicus Gordon and Evans and Haemagogus anastasionis Dyar adults were collected in a locality in the province of Zamora-Chinchipe, in which there have been cases of yellow fever previously. This finding shows the importance of further studies of baseline vector in the country, geographical distribution and ecological aspects and possible epidemiological link with emerging and reemerging diseases.

Navarro J.-C.,Investigador Proyecto Prometeo Senescyt | Navarro J.-C.,Central University of Venezuela | Navarro J.-C.,International University of Ecuador | Arrivillaga J.,Investigador Proyecto Prometeo Senescyt | And 4 more authors.
Entomotropica | Year: 2015

Alpha diversity of mosquitoes was evaluated and the risk of pathogen transmission based on variables of rapid determination. Sampling was conducted in: urban-rural, rural-rural and jungle areas of three provinces. A total of 22 species were collected: 59 % are proven vectors; 45.5 % were captured as adults, 90.9 % as immature phases; two species were captured as adults exclusively (9 %), and 12 species only as immature (54.5 %). Four species were common to all three provinces, 12 were restricted to one location, and 9 species in urban areas. 31.8 % showed anthropophily. 75 % of houses have Culicidae larvae with a Aedes index= 25 %, containers index= 5 %; Bretaeu index= 37.5 %, with 8.56 recipients/house. The results suggest high vulnerability to translocation and spread of pathogens. Five factors should consider: presence and relative abundance of potential vectors; percentage of anthropophily; urban area: Aedes and socioeconomic indices; presence of sylvan species and its association with homes in transition zones and sampling techniques must be include collection for both adults and immatures, which prevents underestimation of up to 50 % of alpha diversity if adults catch are used only. © 2015, Sociedad Venezolana de Entomología.

Anaguano D.F.,University of the Americas in Ecuador | Anaguano D.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion En Salud Publica Inspi | Ponce P.,University of the Americas in Ecuador | Baldeon M.E.,University of the Americas in Ecuador | And 2 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia. In South America, cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in the majority of countries. There are no previous reports of phlebotomine sand fly host feeding sources in Ecuador. We identified blood meal sources for phlebotomine sand fly species in Valle Hermoso, a hyper endemic area for leishmaniasis in Ecuador. Phlebotomine sand fly collections were carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. PCR and multiplex PCR were performed from DNA extracted from the abdomens of blood-fed females to specifically identify the avian and mammalian blood meal sources. Avian-blood (77%), mammalian-blood (16%) and mixed avian-mammalian blood (7%) were found in the samples. At the species level, blood from chickens (35.5%), humans (2.8%), cows (2.8%) and dogs (1.9%) was specifically detected. Nyssomyia trapidoi was the most common species of Lutzomyia found that fed on birds. The present results may aid the development of effective strategies to control leishmaniasis in Ecuador. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Caini S.,Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research NIVEL | Andrade W.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Badur S.,Istanbul University | Balmaseda A.,National Influenza Center | And 67 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Introduction: Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with ≥80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. Results: 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks of influenza A and B coincided less frequently than in temperate countries. Temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics were heterogeneous in the tropics, with distinct seasonal epidemics observed only in some countries. Seasons with co-circulation of influenza A and B were longer than influenza A seasons, especially in the tropics. Discussion: Our findings show that influenza seasonality is less well defined in the tropics than in temperate regions. This has important implications for vaccination programmes in these countries. High-quality influenza surveillance systems are needed in the tropics to enable decisions about when to vaccinate. © 2016, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

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