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Diaz M.T.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Vieira C.,Estacion Tecnologica de la Carne ITACyL | Perez C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Lauzurica S.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

The effect of slaughter at arrival (L0) or after 3 (L3), 6 (L6), 12 (L12) h of lairage on carcass and meat quality of suckling lambs has been studied. Lairage time had a slight effect on carcass quality traits, but most of the meat quality parameters at 24. h post mortem were affected. Weight losses increased and glycogen content of liver and longissimus muscle decreased as lairage time increased. Longissimus muscle from L3 lambs had the highest pH, shear force and toughness and the lowest b* and C* values, at 24. h post mortem. L3 and L6 had the higher proportion of expelled juice, or low water holding capacity (WHC), at 24. h post mortem. Texture parameters and WHC were similar among groups after 5. days of storage. Despite the fact that the effects of lairage time on meat quality disappears after storage, from the point of view of weight losses the slaughter of suckling lambs at arrival is recommended. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ibanez-Escriche N.,Genetica i Millora Animal | Gonzalez-Recio O.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to review the main challenges and pitfalls of the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programs of different livestock species. Genomic selection is now one of the main challenges in animal breeding and genetics. Its application could considerably increase the genetic gain in traits of interest. However, the success of its practical implementation depends on the selection scheme characteristics, and these must be studied for each particular case. In dairy cattle, especially in Holsteins, genomic selection is a reality. However, in other livestock species (beef cattle, small ruminants, monogastrics and fish) genomic selection has mainly been used experimentally. The main limitation for its implementation in the mentioned livestock species is the high genotyping costs compared to the low selection value of the candidate. Nevertheless, nowadays the possibility of using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips of low density to make genomic selection applications economically feasible is under study. Economic studies may optimize the benefits of genomic selection (GS) to include new traits in the breeding goals. It is evident that genomic selection offers great potential; however, a suitable genotyping strategy and recording system for each case is needed in order to properly exploit it.

Ruiz M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Giraldo P.,Technical University of Madrid | Royo C.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Carrillo J.M.,Technical University of Madrid
Crop Science | Year: 2013

Spanish wheat (Triticum spp.) landraces have a considerable polymorphism, containing many unique alleles, relative to other collections. The existence of a core collection is a favored approach for breeders to efficiently explore novel variation and enhance the use of germplasm. In this study, the Spanish durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) core collection (CC) was created using a population structure-based method, grouping accessions by subspecies and allocating the number of genotypes among populations according to the diversity of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The CC of 94 genotypes was established, which accounted for 17% of the accessions in the entire collection. An alternative core collection (CH), with the same number of genotypes per subspecies and maximizing the coverage of SSR alleles, was assembled with the Core Hunter software. The quality of both core collections was compared with a random core collection and evaluated using geographic, agromorphological, and molecular marker data not previously used in the selection of genotypes. Both core collections had a high genetic representativeness, which validated their sampling strategies. Geographic and agromorphological variation, phenotypic correlations, and gliadin alleles of the original collection were more accurately depicted by the CC. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers revealed that the CC included genotypes less similar than the CH. Although more SSR alleles were retained by the CH (94%) than by the CC (91%), the results showed that the CC was better than CH for breeding purposes. © Crop Science Society of America.

Militelli M.I.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Rodrigues K.A.,CONICET
Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences | Year: 2011

Histological examinations of gonads of Serranus auriga confirmed that the species is always a functional simultaneous hermaphrodite with external fertilization. Sections of the gonads revealed that the dominant tissue was ovarian and each lobe was covered by smooth muscle and connective tissue, the tunica albuginea. The presence, in mature individuals, of hydrated oocytes and sperm within the ovotestis suggested the possibility of external self-fertilization. Descriptions based on microscopic examinations of ovarian and testicular tissues are given.

Pinzauti F.,National Research Council Italy | Sebastiani F.,National Research Council Italy | Budde K.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion | Fady B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2012

• Premise of the study: Pinus pinea is one of the few widespread plant species that are also genetically depauperate. It is also an important commercial species with high market value seeds. A deeper knowledge of the existing population genetic variation was needed. • Methods and Results: Twelve nuclear microsatellites were isolated from genomic and cDNA sequences and screened for variability in 729 individuals from 33 natural populations. Low level of genetic variability was confirmed with average expected heterozygosity of 0.11. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were not met in only ~10% of the possible locus/population combinations. All loci were in linkage equilibrium, and the frequency of null alleles was very low (≤ 1% in 332 out of 396 locus/ population combinations). Nine out of the 12 microsatellites were successfully transferred to P. halepensis. • Conclusions: Despite low polymorphism, these new markers will be useful to resolve population structure and hold potential for seed origin identification and traceability. © 2012 Botanical Society of America.

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