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Cardoso S.,Institute Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica | Cardoso S.,University College London | Lau W.,University College London | Eiras Dias J.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria | And 2 more authors.

Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA) concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin) descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST). Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYCB, MYCA, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHSA). Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYCB. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYCB, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies. © 2012 Cardoso et al. Source

De Oliveira P.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria | Dale A.,University of Guelph
Journal of Berry Research

Corema album (Ericaceae), 'Camarinhas', or the 'white crowberry', is a white-berried perennial adapted to sandy soils in the Iberian Peninsula which has been consumed by humans for many centuries. It occurs naturally on sand dunes and cliffs of the Atlantic coast from Gibraltar to Finisterre, and in the Azores on volcanic lava and ash fields. It has the possibility to become a new niche berry crop, because its fruits have a distinct colour (white), and provide high nutritional value. It has the potential to spread throughout southern Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The round, white, berry-like drupes (0.3-0.5 g), have a strong skin, and usually have three large seeds with a thick endocarp. The fruits can be marketable after five days at room temperature, and some samples have been acceptable after five months at 4°C. Here, the taxonomy, biology, and potential production system are discussed and a potential marketing name, the Beachberry, introduced. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Baptista M.,New University of Lisbon | Baptista M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria | Antunes F.,University of Lisbon | Silveira A.,New University of Lisbon
Waste Management and Research

The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the performance of the composting process operation in full-scale mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants, (ii) to estimate their performance under optimized conditions and (iii) to propose specific guidelines on how to improve the efficiency of the composting process. To fulfil these objectives, a first-order kinetic model was used. This model was calibrated with experimental data to account for the limitations imposed by less-than-optimal environmental conditions during operation of the composting process. Data treatment and simulation showed that two of the three MBT plants studied were poorly operated. Optimization of process management with measures of simple practical implementation was estimated to be highly significant in these poorly managed plants, increasing performance by 103% in MBT1 and 53% in MBT2. In MBT3, the potential for optimization was estimated at 17%. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of other published data, suggesting that poor process management in MBT composting is widespread. These findings highlight the importance of having programmes for monitoring and optimizing process performance in full-scale composting systems. The procedures developed here are simple to apply and can routinely be implemented in full-scale plants. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Gouvinhas I.,Royal University | Machado N.,Royal University | Carvalho T.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria | De Almeida J.M.M.M.,Royal University | And 2 more authors.

Extra virgin olive oils produced from three cultivars on different maturation stages were characterized using Raman spectroscopy. Chemometric methods (principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, principal component regression and partial least squares regression) applied to Raman spectral data were utilized to evaluate and quantify the statistical differences between cultivars and their ripening process. The models for predicting the peroxide value and free acidity of olive oils showed good calibration and prediction values and presented high coefficients of determination (>0.933). Both the R2, and the correlation equations between the measured chemical parameters, and the values predicted by each approach are presented; these comprehend both PCR and PLS, used to assess SNV normalized Raman data, as well as first and second derivative of the spectra. This study demonstrates that a combination of Raman spectroscopy with multivariate analysis methods can be useful to predict rapidly olive oil chemical characteristics during the maturation process. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Baptista M.,New University of Lisbon | Baptista M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria | Silveira A.,New University of Lisbon | Antunes F.,University of Lisbon
Waste Management and Research

Composting research at laboratory-scale is critical for the development of optimized full-scale plants. Discrepancies between processes at laboratory-scale and full-scale systems have been investigated in terms of heat balances, but a kinetic analysis of this issue is still missing. In this study, the composting rate at laboratory-scale was, on average, between 1.9 and 5.7 times faster than in full-scale systems for a set of published studies using municipal solid waste, food waste or similar materials. Laboratory-scale performance and full-scale systems were limited to 71 and 46%, respectively, of their maximum potential due to poor management of environmental process conditions far from their optimum. The main limiting environmental factor was found to be moisture content, followed by temperature. Besides environmental factors, waste composition and particle size were identified as factors accounting for kinetic differences between laboratory- and full-scale systems. Overall, this study identifies those factors that affect the kinetics of the composting process most and revealed a significant margin for reducing process time in full-scale composting. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

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