Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia

Cusco, Peru

Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia

Cusco, Peru
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PubMed | Fundacion Promocion e Investigacion de Productos Andinos PROINPA, University of Wuppertal, Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia, Bioversity International and Inter American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture IICA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

For most crops, like Capsicum, their diversity remains under-researched for traits of interest for food, nutrition and other purposes. A small investment in screening this diversity for a wide range of traits is likely to reveal many traditional varieties with distinguished values. One objective of this study was to demonstrate, with Capsicum as model crop, the application of indicators of phenotypic and geographic diversity as effective criteria for selecting promising genebank accessions for multiple uses from crop centers of diversity. A second objective was to evaluate the expression of biochemical and agromorphological properties of the selected Capsicum accessions in different conditions. Four steps were involved: 1) Develop the necessary diversity by expanding genebank collections in Bolivia and Peru; 2) Establish representative subsets of ~100 accessions for biochemical screening of Capsicum fruits; 3) Select promising accessions for different uses after screening; and 4) Examine how these promising accessions express biochemical and agromorphological properties when grown in different environmental conditions. The Peruvian Capsicum collection now contains 712 accessions encompassing all five domesticated species (C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, and C. pubescens). The collection in Bolivia now contains 487 accessions, representing all five domesticates plus four wild taxa (C. baccatum var. baccatum, C. caballeroi, C. cardenasii, and C. eximium). Following the biochemical screening, 44 Bolivian and 39 Peruvian accessions were selected as promising, representing wide variation in levels of antioxidant capacity, capsaicinoids, fat, flavonoids, polyphenols, quercetins, tocopherols, and color. In Peru, 23 promising accessions performed well in different environments, while each of the promising Bolivian accessions only performed well in a certain environment. Differences in Capsicum diversity and local contexts led to distinct outcomes in each country. In Peru, mild landraces with high values in health-related attributes were of interest to entrepreneurs. In Bolivia, wild Capsicum have high commercial demand.


Castro J.C.,National University of San Juan | Maddox J.D.,Pritzker Laboratory for Molecular Systematics and Evolution | Cobos M.,University Cientifica del Peru | Requena D.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: Myrciaria dubia is an Amazonian fruit shrub that produces numerous bioactive phytochemicals, but is best known by its high L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content in fruits. Pronounced variation in AsA content has been observed both within and among individuals, but the genetic factors responsible for this variation are largely unknown. The goals of this research, therefore, were to assemble, characterize, and annotate the fruit transcriptome of M. dubia in order to reconstruct metabolic pathways and determine if multiple pathways contribute to AsA biosynthesis. Results: In total 24,551,882 high-quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 70,048 unigenes (mean length = 1150 bp, N50 = 1775 bp). Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases such as TAIR, GR-protein, FB, MGI, RGD, ZFIN, SGN, WB, TIGR_CMR, and JCVI-CMR with 75.2 % of unigenes having annotations. Of the three core GO annotation categories, biological processes comprised 53.6 % of the total assigned annotations, whereas cellular components and molecular functions comprised 23.3 and 23.1 %, respectively. Based on the KEGG pathway assignment of the functionally annotated transcripts, five metabolic pathways for AsA biosynthesis were identified: animal-like pathway, myo-inositol pathway, L-gulose pathway, D-mannose/L-galactose pathway, and uronic acid pathway. All transcripts coding enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were also identified. Finally, we used the assembly to identified 6314 genic microsatellites and 23,481 high quality SNPs. Conclusions: This study describes the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome annotation of a non-model Amazonian plant that is relevant for AsA production and other bioactive phytochemicals. Genes encoding key enzymes were successfully identified and metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis of AsA, anthocyanins, and other metabolic pathways have been reconstructed. The identification of these genes and pathways is in agreement with the empirically observed capability of M. dubia to synthesize and accumulate AsA and other important molecules, and adds to our current knowledge of the molecular biology and biochemistry of their production in plants. By providing insights into the mechanisms underpinning these metabolic processes, these results can be used to direct efforts to genetically manipulate this organism in order to enhance the production of these bioactive phytochemicals. The accumulation of AsA precursor and discovery of genes associated with their biosynthesis and metabolism in M. dubia is intriguing and worthy of further investigation. The sequences and pathways produced here present the genetic framework required for further studies. Quantitative transcriptomics in concert with studies of the genome, proteome, and metabolome under conditions that stimulate production and accumulation of AsA and their precursors are needed to provide a more comprehensive view of how these pathways for AsA metabolism are regulated and linked in this species. © 2015 Castro et al.


PubMed | Pritzker Laboratory for Molecular Systematics and Evolution, National University of San Juan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC genomics | Year: 2015

Myrciaria dubia is an Amazonian fruit shrub that produces numerous bioactive phytochemicals, but is best known by its high L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content in fruits. Pronounced variation in AsA content has been observed both within and among individuals, but the genetic factors responsible for this variation are largely unknown. The goals of this research, therefore, were to assemble, characterize, and annotate the fruit transcriptome of M. dubia in order to reconstruct metabolic pathways and determine if multiple pathways contribute to AsA biosynthesis.In total 24,551,882 high-quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 70,048 unigenes (mean length = 1150 bp, N50 = 1775 bp). Assembled sequences were annotated using BLASTX against public databases such as TAIR, GR-protein, FB, MGI, RGD, ZFIN, SGN, WB, TIGR_CMR, and JCVI-CMR with 75.2 % of unigenes having annotations. Of the three core GO annotation categories, biological processes comprised 53.6 % of the total assigned annotations, whereas cellular components and molecular functions comprised 23.3 and 23.1 %, respectively. Based on the KEGG pathway assignment of the functionally annotated transcripts, five metabolic pathways for AsA biosynthesis were identified: animal-like pathway, myo-inositol pathway, L-gulose pathway, D-mannose/L-galactose pathway, and uronic acid pathway. All transcripts coding enzymes involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were also identified. Finally, we used the assembly to identified 6314 genic microsatellites and 23,481 high quality SNPs.This study describes the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome annotation of a non-model Amazonian plant that is relevant for AsA production and other bioactive phytochemicals. Genes encoding key enzymes were successfully identified and metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis of AsA, anthocyanins, and other metabolic pathways have been reconstructed. The identification of these genes and pathways is in agreement with the empirically observed capability of M. dubia to synthesize and accumulate AsA and other important molecules, and adds to our current knowledge of the molecular biology and biochemistry of their production in plants. By providing insights into the mechanisms underpinning these metabolic processes, these results can be used to direct efforts to genetically manipulate this organism in order to enhance the production of these bioactive phytochemicals. The accumulation of AsA precursor and discovery of genes associated with their biosynthesis and metabolism in M. dubia is intriguing and worthy of further investigation. The sequences and pathways produced here present the genetic framework required for further studies. Quantitative transcriptomics in concert with studies of the genome, proteome, and metabolome under conditions that stimulate production and accumulation of AsA and their precursors are needed to provide a more comprehensive view of how these pathways for AsA metabolism are regulated and linked in this species.


Gutierrez L.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | German S.,National Agricultural Research Institute INIA | Pereyra S.,National Agricultural Research Institute INIA | Hayes P.M.,Oregon State University | And 16 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2015

Abstract: Diseases represent a major constraint for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in Latin America. Spot blotch (caused by Cochliobolus sativus), stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei) and leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei) are three of the most important diseases that affect the crop in the region. Since fungicide application is not an economically or environmentally sound solution, the development of durably resistant varieties is a priority for breeding programs. Therefore, new resistance sources are needed. The objective of this work was to detect genomic regions associated with field level plant resistance to spot blotch, stripe rust, and leaf rust in Latin American germplasm. Disease severities measured in multi-environment trials across the Americas and 1,096 SNPs in a population of 360 genotypes were used to identify genomic regions associated with disease resistance. Optimized experimental design and spatial modeling were used in each trial to estimate genotypic means. Genome-Wide Association Mapping (GWAS) in each environment was used to detect Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). All significant environment-specific QTL were subsequently included in a multi-environment-multi-QTL (MEMQ) model. Geographical origin and inflorescence type were the main determinants of population structure. Spot blotch severity was low to intermediate while leaf and stripe rust severity was high in all environments. Mega-environments were defined by locations for spot blotch and leaf rust. Significant marker-trait associations for spot blotch (9 QTL), leaf (6 QTL) and stripe rust (7 QTL) and both global and environment-specific QTL were detected that will be useful for future breeding efforts.Key message: Multi-environment multi-QTL mixed models were used in a GWAS context to identify QTL for disease resistance. The use of mega-environments aided the interpretation of environment-specific and general QTL. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Arias N.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Arias N.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Requena M.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia | Palme R.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Animal Welfare | Year: 2013

The welfare and productivity of South American camelids may be affected by stressful events. The purpose of this study was to validate a non-invasive method for stress monitoring using faecal samples and to apply it to evaluate a stressful event, such as confinement. For physiological validation, nine alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and six llamas (Lama glama) were subjected to pharmacological stimulation of their adrenal cortex. Serial faecal samples were collected during 48 h before and after stimulation. During confinement, faecal samples from six llamas were collected twice per day during six consecutive days. Faeces belonging to 18 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) were collected before and one day after their capture for confinement (Chacu). Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) were extracted from each sample and quantified by an 11- oxoaetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay. Thirty-three and 28 h (median) after ACTH stimulation, FCM concentrations peaked with a ten- and eight-fold increase (median) above baseline in alpacas and llamas, respectively. There were no significant differences in FCM concentrations between sexes. In llamas, FCM concentrations peaked (4.7 times higher than baseline) after five days of confinement in females and after three days (2.7 times) in males. In vicuñas, three times higher FCM levels were observed the day after the start of confinement (in comparison to the starting values). Based on our findings, this non-invasive method is well suited to measure adrenocortical activity in alpacas, llamas and vicuñas. Thus, this method could help to improve management, handling and welfare in wild and domesticated South American camelids. © 2013 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.


Meckelmann S.W.,University of Wuppertal | Jansen C.,University of Wuppertal | Riegel D.W.,University of Wuppertal | van Zonneveld M.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | And 5 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2015

Peru is considered a hotspot with maybe the highest diversity of domesticated chili peppers. Capsicum pubescens is the least explored domesticated chili pepper, especially with regard to its chemical composition. Thirty-two different C. pubescens (Rocoto) accessions, out of the national Peruvian Capsicum germplasm collection at the Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria, were selected for investigating the phytochemical content and its variability. After drying and milling, the fruits were analyzed for the three major capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin), flavonoid aglycons (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, tocopherol (α-, β- and γ-) content, fat content, ascorbic acid content, surface color and extractable color. The concentrations for selected traits ranged as follows: total capsaicinoids from 55 to 410 mg/100 g (corresponding to ca. 8400–60,000 SHU), total polyphenols from 1.8 to 2.5 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g, antioxidant capacity from 2.4 to 4.6 mmol Trolox/100 g and tocopherols from 6.8 to 18.4 mg/100 g. Only very few of the accessions contained detectable amounts of the major chili flavonoid quercetin. The results indicate that C. pubescens is generally less diverse and exhibits a lower content of almost all analyzed traits when compared to 147 Peruvian chili pepper accessions belonging to the other four domesticated species. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Meckelmann S.W.,University of Wuppertal | Riegel D.W.,University of Wuppertal | van Zonneveld M.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Rios L.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia | And 3 more authors.
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2014

Twenty-three Peruvian chili pepper accessions, belonging to the four domesticated species Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum frutescens, were grown under different meteorological conditions and agricultural practices in three Peruvian locations (Chiclayo, Piura and Pucallpa). Results are reported for powdered oven-dried bulk samples of each accession and each location by important quality attributes (capsaicinoids, flavonoids, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, extractable color (ASTA 20.1) and surface color). Multivariate data evaluation by principle component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis did not show any underlying structure. Moreover, a high influence of the environment on the analyzed traits could be demonstrated by analysis of variance. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) between the accessions and all locations were observed for all traits. Besides, significant interaction between accessions and locations indicated that the accessions responded differently to changes of the locations. The calculation of an environmental impact factor allowed differing between chili peppers provided consistent phytochemical levels widely independent of the location or those that provided exceptional high levels for a specific trait at one of the locations. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


de Haan S.,International Potato Center | Burgos G.,International Potato Center | Arcos J.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia | Ccanto R.,Grupo Yanapai | And 3 more authors.
Economic Botany | Year: 2010

Traditional Processing of Black and White Chuño in the Peruvian Andes: Regional Variants and Effect on the Mineral Content of Native Potato Cultivars. Farmers in the high Andes of central to southern Peru and Bolivia typically freeze-dry potatoes to obtain chuño. Processing of so-called black chuño follows tending, treading, freezing, and drying. The making of white chuño is generally more complex and involves exposure of tubers to water. Regional variants exist for each of these processes, yet their influence on the nutritional composition of native potato cultivars is little known. Tubers belonging to four distinct cultivars and produced in a replicated trial under uniform conditions were processed into four types of chuño following standard traditional procedures (farmer-managed). These regional variants were documented, and the dry matter, iron, zinc, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium content of the four resulting different types of boiled chuño determined at the International Potato Center's Quality and Nutrition Laboratory (Lima, Peru). Content values were compared with those of boiled (unprocessed) tubers from the same experiment. Regional variants of processing are to a large extent determined by tradition, environmental condition, and market demand. The zinc, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium content of all types of chuño decreases in comparison with unprocessed tubers. Concentrations of these same minerals decrease more drastically for white as compared to black chuño. The effect of the four regional variants of freeze-drying on the dry matter, iron, calcium, and sodium content of chuño differs by process and/or cultivar. © 2010 The New York Botanical Garden.


Gomez J.C.C.,National University of San Juan | Reategui A.D.C.E.,National University of San Juan | Flores J.T.,National University of San Juan | Saavedra R.R.,National University of San Juan | And 2 more authors.
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A 260nm/A280nm > 1.9 and A260nm/A 230nm > 2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384 ± 46 g ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Garay R.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia | Hidalgo E.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia | Alegria J.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria Inia | Alegria J.A.,National University of San Martín of Peru | Mendieta O.W.,National University of San Martín of Peru
Informacion Tecnologica | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to determine the optimum time for fruit harvest and the quality parameters of physic nuts (Jatropha curcas L) suitable for the production of biodiesel. This work was developed in the experimental station El Porvenir of Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria in Perú. The physical characteristics of the fruits and seeds and the chemical characteristics of the oil were evaluated. The fruits used were selected at the beginning of fruiting. The R2 maturation status lasted 29 ±1.8 hours, the state R3 12 ± 1.6 hours, the state R4 27 ± 1.7 hours and finally R5 24 ± 1.0 hours. Chemical analysis showed that the seeds of physic nuts contain 51.5% fat at the physiological state R4 while the highest acidity was found in the R6 with 1.3 mg KOH/g oil. The fruit of physic nuts can be harvested during the physiological states R3, R4 and R5 to have high oil content and low acidity.

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