Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2008.1.1.5.1. | Award Amount: 4.77M | Year: 2009
The proposal addresses Topic ENV.2008.1.1.5.1 Addressing deforestation in tropical areas: greenhouse gas emissions, socio-economic drivers and impacts, and policy options for emissions reduction. The overall goal of the project is to contribute to the development and evaluation of mechanisms and the institutions needed at multiple levels for changing stakeholder behaviour to slow tropical deforestation rates and hence reduce GHG emissions. This will be achieved through enhancing our understanding of the social, cultural, economic and ecological drivers of forest transition in selected case study areas in Southeast Asia, Africa and South America. This understanding will facilitate the identification and assessment of viable policy options addressing the drivers of deforestation and their consistency with policy approaches on avoided deforestation, such as Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and degradation (REDD), currently being discussed in UNFCCC and other relevant international fora. At the same time, ways of improving the spatial quantification of land use change and the associated changes in GHG fluxes will be developed, thereby improving the accounting of GHG emissions resulting from land use change in tropical forest margins and peatlands. This will allow the analysis of scenarios of the local impacts of potential international climate change policies on GHG emission reductions, land use, and livelihoods in selected case study areas, the results of which will be used to develop new negotiation support tools for use with stakeholders at international, national and local scales to explore a basket of options for incorporating REDD into post-2012 climate agreements. The project will provide a unique link between international policy-makers and stakeholders on the ground who will be required to change their behaviour regarding deforestation, thereby contributing to well-informed policy-making at the international level.
Castro J.C.,University of the Amazon |
Cobos M.,University Cientifica del Peru |
Maddox J.D.,The Field Museum of Natural History |
Iman S.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria |
And 3 more authors.
Biologia Plantarum | Year: 2015
The aim of this work was to elucidate the molecular and biochemical mechanisms that control L-ascorbic acid (AsA) content variation in Myrciaria dubia. The AsA was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography, gene expression by real-time quantitative PCR, and enzyme activities by spectrophotometric methods from leaves and immature fruits of two genotypes (Md-60,06 and Md-02,04) with pronounced (about 2 times) differences in the AsA content. In either genotype, the fruit peel had ~ 1.5 times more AsA than the fruit pulp and ~ 15.0 times more than the leaf. All tissues examined demonstrated the capability for AsA biosynthesis through the D-mannose/L-galactose pathway because mRNAs of the six key genes [GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-D-mannose-3′,5′- epimerase (GME), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), L-galactose dehydrogenase (GDH), and L-galactono-1-4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH)] and catalytic activities of the corresponding enzymes (GMP, GDH, and GLDH) were detected. The differential expressions of genes and enzyme activities mostly correlated with the respective AsA content. Thus, the expression of several genes of the D-mannose/ L-galactose pathway determined the AsA content variation in tissues of M. dubia. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
La Manna V.,University of Camerino |
La Terza A.,University of Camerino |
Ghezzi S.,University of Florence |
Saravanaperumal S.,University of Camerino |
And 4 more authors.
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2011
Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 188.8.131.52. The sample was tested for Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37) showed deviation from equilibrium (P<0.05). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was also tested and 9 loci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044), expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033), number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772) and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036) are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei's and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza's. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci. © V. La Manna et al., 2011.
Gamarra L.F.R.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria |
Delgado J.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria |
Villasante Y.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Innovacion Agraria |
Ortiz R.,Apt Therapeutics, Inc.
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011
Background: The genetic diversity of maize in Peru includes several landraces (within race clusters) and modern open pollinated and hybrid cultivars that are grown by farmers across various regions, thereby making this country a secondary center of diversity for this crop. A main topic of controversy in recent years refers to the unintended presence of transgenic events in locally grown cultivars at main centers of crop diversity. Peru does not yet have biosafety regulations to control or permit the growing of genetically modified crops. Hence, the aim of this research was to undertake a survey in the valley of Barranca, where there were recent claims of authorized transgenic maize grown in farmers fields as well as in samples taken from feed storage and grain or seed trade centers. Results: A total of 162 maize samples (134 from fields, 15 from local markets, eight from the collecting centers of poultry companies, from the local trading center and four samples from seed markets) were included for a qualitative detection by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) and nopaline synthase terminator (Tnos) sequences, as well as for six transgenic events, namely BT11, NK603, T25, 176, TC1507 and MON810. The 134 maize samples from farmers fields were negative for Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin insecticidal protein and enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) using lateral flow strips. The PCR analysis did not detect any of the six transgenic events in samples from farmers fields, local markets, seed trading shops and the local collecting center. There were four transgenic events (T25, NK603, MON810 and TC1507) in grain samples from the barns of poultry companies. Conclusions: This research could not detect, at the 95% probability level, transgenes in farmers' fields in the valley of Barranca. The four transgenic events in grain samples from barns of poultry companies were not surprising because Peru imports maize, mainly for animal feed, from Argentina and the United States that are known for growing transgenic maize. © 2011 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile.