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Domingues R.M.S.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Infectologia Evandro Chagas Ini Fiocruz | Szwarcwald C.L.,Institute Comunicao e Informao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude Icict Fiocruz | Borges Souza P.R.,Institute Comunicao e Informao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude Icict Fiocruz | Leal M.C.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca Fiocruz
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: The rate of vertical HIV transmission has decreased in Brazil, but regional inequalities suggest problems in implementing control measures during pregnancy and delivery. The aims of this study were to ascertain the coverage of HIV testing during prenatal care and estimate the prevalence of HIV infection during pregnancy in Brazil. Methods: This was a national hospital-based study of 23,894 women that was conducted in 2011-2012. The data came from interviews with mothers during postpartum hospitalization, from hospital medical files and from prenatal cards. All the pregnant women with reactive serological results for HIV infection marked on their cards or with diagnoses of HIV infection during the hospital stay for delivery were considered cases of HIV infection. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were performed to investigate factors associated with the prevalence of HIV infection and with performing at least one HIV test during pregnancy. Results: Among participating women, the coverage of testing for HIV infection was 81.7% among those who presented with prenatal card and the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women was 0.4% (95% CI: 0.32-0.51%). In the adjusted analysis, there was higher coverage of testing among women living in the South and Southeast regions; of women aged 35 years and over; with greater schooling levels; who self-reported as white; with prenatal care provided in private services; with an early start to prenatal care; and with an adequate number of consultations, defined as a minimum of six for a term pregnancy. In the adjusted analyses there was a greater odds ratio of HIV infection among women living in the South region, aged 35 years and over, with schooling of less than 8 years, who self-reported race as black, without a partner, with syphilis coinfection and who were attended by public services. Conclusions: The prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Brazil remains below 1% and the coverage of testing for HIV infection is over 80%. However, the regional and social inequalities in access to healthcare services and the missed opportunities for diagnoses of HIV infection indicate the importance of strengthening HIV infection control programs during pregnancy. © Domingues et al. Source

Fogel J.M.,Johns Hopkins University | Hudelson S.E.,Johns Hopkins University | Ou S.-S.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Hart S.,Frontier Science and Technology Research Foundation | And 30 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2016

Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV transmission and has health benefits. HIV drug resistance can limit treatment options and compromise use of ART for HIV prevention. We evaluated drug resistance in 85 participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial who started ART at CD4 counts of 350-550 cells per cubic millimeter and failed ART by May 2011; 8.2% had baseline resistance and 35.3% had resistance at ART failure. High baseline viral load and less education were associated with emergence of resistance at ART failure. Resistance at ART failure was observed in 7 of 8 (87.5%) participants who started ART at lower CD4 cell counts. © Copyright 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Morgado F.N.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz IOC Fiocruz | Nascimento M.T.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Saraiva E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De Oliveira-Ribeiro C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz IOC Fiocruz | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been described as a network of extracellular fibers composed by DNA, histones and various proteins/enzymes. Studies have demonstrated that NETs could be responsible for the trapping and elimination of a variety of infectious agents. In order to verify the presence of NETs in American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) and their relationship with the presence of amastigotes we evaluated active cutaneous lesions of 35 patients before treatment by the detection of parasites, neutrophils (neutrophil elastase) and histones through immunohistochemistry and confocal immunofluorescence. Intact neutrophils could be detected in all ATL lesions. NETs were present in 27 patients (median 1.1; range from 0.1 to 23.5/mm2) with lesion duration ranging from one to seven months. NETs were in close proximity with neutrophils (r = 0.586; p = 0.0001) and amastigotes (r = 0.710; p = 0.0001). Two patterns of NET formation were detected: small homogeneously distributed networks observed in all lesions; and large structures that could be visualized at a lower magnification in lesions presenting at least 20% of neutrophils. Lesions presenting the larger NET formation showed high parasite detection. A correlation between NET size and the number of intact amastigotes was observed (p=0.02). As we detected an association between NET and amastigotes, our results suggest that neutrophil migration and NET formation could be stimulated and maintained by stimuli derived from the parasite burden/parasite antigen in the extracellular environment. The observation of areas containing only antigens not intermingled with NETs (elastase and histone) suggests that the involvement of these structures in the control of parasite burden is a dynamic process in which the formation of NETs is exhausted with the destruction of the parasites. Since NETs were also associated with granulomas, this trapping would favor the activity of macrophages in order to control the parasite burden. © 2015 Morgado et al. Source

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