Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria

Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico

Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria

Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional, Mexico

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Lourenco R.A.,State University of Rio de Janeiro | Perez-zepeda M.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | Gutierrez-robledo L.,National Institute of Geriatrics | Garcia-garcia F.J.,Complejo Hospitalario Of Toledo | Rodriguez manas L.,Hospital Universitario Of Getafe
Age and Ageing | Year: 2015

Background: there is a lack of consensus on the diagnosis of sarcopenia. A screening and diagnostic algorithm was proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP).Objective: to assess the performance of the EWGSOP algorithm in determining the proportion of subjects suspected of having sarcopenia and selected to undergo subsequent muscle mass (MM) measurement.Design: a cross-sectional study.Setting: the cohorts, Frailty in Brazilian Older People Study-Rio de Janeiro (FIBRA-RJ), Brazil; Coyoacan Cohort (CC), Mexico City, Mexico; and Toledo Study for Healthy Aging (TSHA), Toledo, Spain.Subjects: three thousand two hundred and sixty community-dwelling individuals, 65 years and older.Methods: initially, the EWGSOP algorithm was applied using its originally proposed cut-off values for gait speed and handgrip strength; in the second step, values tailored for the specific cohorts were used.Results: using the originally suggested EWGSOP cut-off points, 83.4% of the total cohort (94.4% in TSHA, 75.5% in FIBRA-RJ, 67.8% in CC) would have been considered as suspected of sarcopenia. Adapted cut-off values lowered the proportion of abnormal results to 34.2% (quintile-based approach) and 23.71% (z-score approach).Conclusions: the algorithm proposed by the EWGSOP is of limited clinical utility in screening older adults for sarcopenia due to the high proportion of subjects selected to further undergo MM assessment. Tailoring cut-off values to specific characteristics of the population being studied reduces the number of people selected for MM assessment, probably improving the performance of the algorithm. Further research including the objective measure of MM is needed to determine the accuracy of these specific cut-off points. © The Author 2014.

Garcia-Pena C.,Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Garcia-Fabela L.C.,Institute Seguridad Social Del Estado Of Mexico Y Municipios | Gutierrez-Robledo L.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | Garcia-Gonzalez J.J.,Hospital Regional 1 | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Functional decline after hospitalization is a common adverse outcome in elderly. An easy to use, reproducible and accurate tool to identify those at risk would aid focusing interventions in those at higher risk. Handgrip strength has been shown to predict adverse outcomes in other settings. The aim of this study was to determine if handgrip strength measured upon admission to an acute care facility would predict functional decline (either incident or worsening of preexisting) at discharge among older Mexican, stratified by gender. In addition, cutoff points as a function of specificity would be determined. A cohort study was conducted in two hospitals in Mexico City. The primary endpoint was functional decline on discharge, defined as a 30-point reduction in the Barthel Index score from that of the baseline score. Handgrip strength along with other variables was measured at initial assessment, including: instrumental activities of daily living, cognition, depressive symptoms, delirium, hospitalization length and quality of life. All analyses were stratified by gender. Logistic regression to test independent association between handgrip strength and functional decline was performed, along with estimation of handgrip strength test values (specificity, sensitivity, area under the curve, etc.). A total of 223 patients admitted to an acute care facility between 2007 and 2009 were recruited. A total of 55 patients (24.7%) had functional decline, 23.46% in male and 25.6% in women. Multivariate analysis showed that only males with low handgrip strength had an increased risk of functional decline at discharge (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.98, p = 0.01), with a specificity of 91.3% and a cutoff point of 20.65 kg for handgrip strength. Females had not a significant association between handgrip strength and functional decline. Measurement of handgrip strength on admission to acute care facilities may identify male elderly patients at risk of having functional decline, and intervene consequently. © 2013 García-Peña et al.

North B.J.,Harvard University | Rosenberg M.A.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Jeganathan K.B.,Rochester College | Hafner A.V.,Harvard University | And 11 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2014

Mice overexpressing the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene BubR1 live longer, whereas mice hypomorphic for BubR1 (BubR1H/H) live shorter and show signs of accelerated aging. As wild-type mice age, BubR1 levels decline in many tissues, a process that is proposed to underlie normal aging and age-related diseases. Understanding why BubR1 declines with age and how to slow this process is therefore of considerable interest. The sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that can delay age-related diseases. Here, we show that the loss of BubR1 levels with age is due to a decline in NAD+ and the ability of SIRT2 to maintain lysine-668 of BubR1 in a deacetylated state, which is counteracted by the acetyltransferase CBP. Overexpression of SIRT2 or treatment of mice with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) increases BubR1 abundance in vivo. Overexpression of SIRT2 in BubR1H/H animals increases median lifespan, with a greater effect in male mice. Together, these data indicate that further exploration of the potential of SIRT2 and NAD+ to delay diseases of aging in mammals is warranted. © 2014 The Authors.

Alarcon-Aguilar A.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Luna-Lopez A.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | Ventura-Gallegos J.L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Lazzarini R.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | And 5 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014

Astrocytes are key players for brain physiology, protecting neurons by releasing antioxidant enzymes; however, they are also susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of the antioxidant response, and therefore, pharmacologic inducers are often used to activate this transcription factor to induce cellular protection. To date, it still remains unknown if cells from aged animals are capable of developing this response. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to determine if cortical astrocytes derived from old rats are able to respond to tertbuthyl-hydroquinene (tBHQ) pretreatment and stimulate the Nrf2-antioxidant response pathway to induce an antioxidant strategy against MPP+ toxicity, one of the most used molecules to model Parkinson's disease. Our results show that, although astrocytes from adult and old rats were more susceptible to MPP+ toxicity than astrocytes from newborn rats, when pretreated with tertbuthyl-hydroquinene, they were able to transactivate Nrf2, increasing antioxidant enzymes and developing cellular protection. These results are discussed in terms of the doses used to create protective responses. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Luna-Lopez A.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | Gonzalez-Puertos V.Y.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Romero-Ontiveros J.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Ventura-Gallegos J.L.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Cells can respond to damage and stress by activating various repair and survival pathways. One of these responses can be induced by preconditioning the cells with sublethal stress to provoke a prosurvival response that will prevent damage and death, and which is known as hormesis. Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein recognized by its antioxidant and prosurvival functions, has been documented to play an important role during oxidative-conditioning hormesis. Using an oxidative-hormetic model, which was previously established in the L929 cell line by subjecting the cells to a mild oxidative stress of 50 μM H 2O2 for 9 h, we identified two different transductional mechanisms that participate in the regulation of Bcl-2 expression during the hormetic response. These mechanisms converge in activating the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB. Interestingly, the noncanonical p50 subunit of the NF-κB family is apparently the subunit that participates during the oxidative-hormetic response. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Luna-Lopez A.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | Gonzalez-Puertos V.Y.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Lopez-Diazguerrero N.E.,Metropolitan Autonomous University | Konigsberg M.,Metropolitan Autonomous University
Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2014

Last, we discuss mild oxidative stress in association to low-grade chronic inflammation as a stimulating avenue to be explored and the unexpected effects proposed by the obesity paradox theory. All the previous might help to clarify the reasons why centenarians are able to reach the extreme limits of human life span, which could probably be related to the way they deal with homeostasis maintenance, providing an opportunity for hormesis to intervene significantly.In order to survive living organisms have developed multiple mechanisms to deal with tough environmental conditions. Hormesis is defined as a process in which exposure to a low dose of a chemical agent or environmental factor that is damaging at higher doses induces an adaptive beneficial effect on the cell or organism. In this paper, we examine several ideas that might be taken into consideration before using hormesis as a therapeutic tool to improve health and life span, and hopefully will open the discussion for new and interesting debates regard hormesis. The first one is to understand that the same stressor or inductor can activate different pathways in a parallel or dual response, which might lead to diverse outcomes. Another idea is related to the mechanisms involved in activating Nrf2, which might be different and have diverse hormetic effects. © 2014, The International CCN Society.

The objective of this study was to calculate average years of life lost due to breast and cervical cancer in Mexico in 2000 and 2010. Data on mortality in women aged between 20 and 84 years was obtained from the National Institute for Statistics and Geography. Age-specific mortality rates and average years of life lost, which is an estimate of the number of years that a person would have lived if he or she had not died prematurely, were estimated for both diseases. Data was disaggregated into five-year age groups and socioeconomic status based on the 2010 marginalization index obtained from the National Population Council. A decrease in average years of life lost due to cervical cancer (37.4%) and an increase in average years of life lost due breast cancer (8.9%) was observed during the period studied. Average years of life lost due to cervical cancer was greater among women living in areas with a high marginalization index, while average years of life lost due to breast cancer was greater in women from areas with a low marginalization index.

Michan S.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria
Frontiers in Bioscience - Landmark | Year: 2014

Among diverse environmental factors that modify aging, diet has a profound effect. Calorie restriction (CR), which entails reduced calorie consumption without malnutrition, is the only natural regimen shown to extend maximum and mean lifespan, as well as healthspan in a wide range of organisms. Although the knowledge about the biological mechanisms underlying CR is still incipient, various approaches in biogerontology research suggest that CR can ameliorate hallmarks of aging at the cellular level including telomere erosion, epigenetic alterations, stem cells depletion, cellular senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, genomic instability, proteostasis imbalance, impaired nutrient sensing and abnormal intercellular communication. Currently, the NAD +/sirtuin pathway is one of the few mechanisms described to mediate CR effects and sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) mimic many effects of CR. Herein, we discuss the effects of CR on healthspan with emphasis on neuroprotection, how CR counteracts cellular aging, how sirtuin pathways intertwine with CR, and the relevance of STACs in mimicking CR effects.

Gutierrez-Robledo L.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | Arrieta-Cruz I.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria
Gaceta Medica de Mexico | Year: 2015

Dementia is one of the facts than most contributes to the disability and dependence in elderly people. Alzheimer´s disease is the cause more common of dementia in the world. In Mexico, the prevalence of Alzheimer´s disease is 7.3% and incidence of 27.3 per 1,000 people/year. Mexican population studies have determined that Alzheimer´s disease is highly associated to women and their risk to develop it is increased with metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, or depression. The projections are that there will be 3.5 million elderly people affected by Alzheimer´s disease by 2050 in Mexico; this will have a major impact on the healthcare system. The National Institute of Geriatrics from Mexico’s Ministry of Health has released a first proposal for a National Alzheimer and Other Dementias’ Plan. The central aim of this plan is to promote the well being of people affected by Alzheimer´s disease and their families through of the strengthening of the Mexican healthcare system and the support of other responsible institutions. © 2015, Academia Nacional de Medicina. All rights reserved.

Fossion R.,Instituto Nacional Of Geriatria | Fossion R.,National University of Costa Rica
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2014

This contribution discusses some recent applications of time-series analysis in Random Matrix Theory (RMT), and applications of RMT in the statistial analysis of eigenspectra of correlation matrices of multivariate time series. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

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