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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENV.2007.4.1.4.1. | Award Amount: 2.42M | Year: 2008

Africa, the largest single component of the African Caribbean Pacific (ACP) Group of States, despite its huge potential for development through both human and georesources, suffers in many places from poverty and underdevelopment. The sustainable use of its resources is a key issue, not only for development of the African countries, but also for the worlds future. Over the coming decades, these issues are likely to play an ever-increasing role due to the worlds growing population, rapid urban development and the rising demand for better infrastructure and services. The sustainable use of georesources requires a knowledge based on data, information and expertise. Thus, the availability, traceability, accessibility and processing using GIS technologies of heterogeneous data from multiple sources is essential. Such processing requires a qualified and experienced personnel and the definition of strategies for capacity building and training. In view of this situation, a recognised need has emerged for a shared, distributed, Internet-linked georesources observation system, based on open standards and interoperability developments, as a contribution to the sustainable development of African countries. The Support Action is the preparatory phase needed to design the African-European Georesource Observation System (AEGOS) capable of hosting and providing access to Africas geological resources, including groundwater, energy, raw materials and mineral resources. Its objectives are to define: i) operational procedures for data management (Spatial Data Infrastructure, metadata and data specification), ii) user-oriented products and services including the preparation of innovative spin off projects based on AEGOS and an evaluation of the input of Interoperability and interdisciplinary in support of GEOSS iii) the African- European partner network, iv) a geoscience contribution to GEOSS, in the context of INSPIRE


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-2.3-06 | Award Amount: 7.61M | Year: 2008

NORSEWInD is a programme designed to provide a wind resource map covering the Baltic, Irish and North Sea areas. The project will acquire highly accurate, cost effective, physical data using a combination of traditional Meteorological masts, ground based remote sensing instruments (LiDAR & SoDAR) and Satellite acquired SAR winds.The vertical resolution of the ground based instruments will be used to calibrate the Satellite data to provide hub height, real world data. The resultant wind map will be the first stop for all potential developers in the regions being examined, and as such represents an important step forward in quantifying the quality of the wind resource available offshore. The techniques employed are fully transferrable, meaning that they can be repeated in any offshore environment. This will be showcased in the NORSEWInD validation task. Remote sensing has a hugely important role to play within the wind industry, and their use within the NORSEWInD programme to reduce the cost and increase the accuracy of offsore wind measurements will increase acceptance and showcase the ability and power of the techniques.


Martins R.C.,University of Minho | Castro C.C.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering | Lopes V.V.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2011

Supercooling is still today one of the most challenging physical phenomena to be modelled in food bioprocess engineering. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of a finite-element-cellular automata (FEM-CA) approach to model the propagation of nucleation inside supercooled strawberries with five different morphologies (higher and lower volumes of vascular tissue, pulp, and central air void) frozen inside an air blast freezer under different operational conditions: initial temperature (0 to +20 °C), air temperature (-45 to -20 °C), and velocity (1 to 10 m s -1). Results show that nucleation is highly affected by the initial temperature and heat transfer rate during phase change. The stochastic nature of nucleation only allowed us to consider it a random variable inside the model temperature restriction interval, it not yet being possible to know what triggers nucleation. However, this study allowed us to conclude that: (1) the structure of liquid water in the supercooled region plays a very significant role during the supercooling effect, (2) nucleation temperatures increase in the supercooled region due to the release of latent heat, and (3) strawberry morphology and operational variables have a profound effect on the supercooling capacity. In our opinion, supercooling is still an open subject, and only a deeper understanding of the structuring of water and dynamics of nucleation at the molecular level may lead to significant advances in the quality of frozen foods and cryopreservation. © 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.5.2.2 | Award Amount: 3.13M | Year: 2010

COMET aims at identifying and assessing the most cost effective CO2 transport and storage infrastructure able to serve the West Mediterranean area, namely Portugal, Spain and Morocco. This is achieved considering the time and spatial aspects of the development of the energy sector and other industrial activities in those countries as well as the location, capacity and availability of potential CO2 storage geological formations. Special attention is given to a balanced decision on transport modes, matching the sources and sinks, addressing safety and lifetime objectives, meeting optimal cost - benefit trade-off, for a CCS network infrastructure as part of an international cooperation policy. The need for a joint CCS infrastructure in the West Mediterranean is related to the geographical proximity, to the increasing connections between the energy and industrial sectors in the area, to the continuity of sedimentary basins that can act as possible storage reservoirs and to the existing experience in managing a large gas transport infrastructure, such as the natural gas pipeline coming through Morocco, to Spain and Portugal. The consortium is coordinated by INETI (Portugal), and comprises 7 research institutions, 4 Universities, 1 SME and 5 energy companies from 6 European countries and Morocco. COMET aims to optimise the connection between sources and sinks by comparing the several possible transport modes (pipelines, trains, ships and trucks) and existing and to be realized infrastructures and expects to find the least-cost transport mode and routes from clusters to sinks. It is expected that each source cluster will be rigorously matched to the most suitable sink, while minimising the required investment in infrastructures and taking advantage of the effect of scale associated to an integrated infrastructure. COMET will be an important step towards the safe and commercial deployment of large scale near zero emission power plants in SW Europe and North Africa.


Rodrigues A.M.,University of Lisbon | Aelenei L.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2010

Cavity walls are often proposed in the building envelope design as a solution for improving the thermal comfort of the occupants and reducing the adverse condensation effects on the building fabric. Although the behaviour of a nonventilatedcavity wall is well-known, more studies are required when cavity ventilation is allowed. In order to consistently predict the thermal behaviour of a naturally ventilated cavity wall, a convective model based on the integral equations of motion and enthalpy was developed and applied in the present study. The model is presented as a combination of two limiting cases of a steady laminar flow into the channel gap: fully developed flow and boundary layer flow. Conduction effects across the system are also included through a proper limiting case and then combined with the convective model. In addition a numerical CFD model was developed that provides solution for free convective flow configurations between two parallel conducting vertical walls. For comparison purposes, some test cases were simulated with the two models and a general good agreement was found between results. Finally, the integral model was applied to assess the thermal performance of a ventilated cavity wall for winter and summer conditions. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Duque J.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering | Barbosa-Povoa A.P.F.D.,University of Lisbon | Novais A.Q.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2010

The present work describes the integration of environmental impact/damage evaluation into an optimization model for management of industrial networks. The selected methodology of environmental evaluation, the Eco-indicator 99, is based on the life cycle impact assessment. Its implementation and suitability is studied with an emphasis being placed on the strengths and limits of the methodology. The final model, derived from the application of process system engineering methodologies, is described as a mixed-integer linear program, which, once solved, is able to suggest the optimal processing and transportation routes, while optimizing a given objective function that either meets the design and environmental constraints or minimizes the eco-indicator. Whenever the impacts/damages costs are quantifiable, the calculation may also contemplate the inclusion of the environmental costs into the economic function that evaluates the network characteristic data and costs. An example based on the implementation of an innovative network for the recovery of the sludge obtained from aluminum surface finishing plants is presented. This illustrates the importance of including environmental impact/damage methodologies, explores their possible uses and analyzes obtained results. It is also used to perform a multiobjective analysis through an approximation to the Pareto curve for an economic-environmental trade-off. This curve is obtained through the application of a ε-constraint method, by plotting a set of successive optimized solutions given by the maximization of an economic function that reflects the costs of disposal, processing, transport, and materials storage versus an impact indicator obtained from the environment pollutants emitted. This analysis is complemented with the minimization of the eco-indicator value (EI99), along with an estimate of the corresponding amount of sludge recovery. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Gomes M.C.,University of Lisbon | Barbosa-Povoa A.P.,Campus Management | Novais A.Q.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2010

This research presents a new reactive scheduling methodology for job shop, make-to-order industries. An integer linear programming formulation previously developed by the authors to schedule these types of industries is extended to address the problem of inserting new orders in a predetermined schedule, which is important in order-driven industries. A reactive scheduling algorithm is introduced to iteratively update the schedules. Numerical results on realistic examples of job shops of different sizes illustrate the effectiveness of the approach. In each case, different alternatives for inserting a set of new orders in an initial schedule are optimally generated, enabling the user to choose the most convenient one. Solutions are characterised by measures of scheduling efficiency as well as stability measures that assess the impact of rescheduling operations in a previously defined scheduling solution. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Burke A.J.,University of Évora | Marinho V.R.,University of Évora | Furtado O.M.R.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering
Current Organic Synthesis | Year: 2010

Over the last several years the need to improve efficiency and minimize waste has spurred chemists to develop new catalysts for a wider range of reactions that was previously only achievable using stoichiometric reagents. A very powerful approach at achieving this goal is through the use of multiple transition metal catalysed one-pot processes, whereby the desired target compound is synthesised in a single work-up step. In this review we highlight some of the most significant developments in this field that have occurred over the last 10 years. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SPA-2007-2.2-02 | Award Amount: 2.99M | Year: 2009

AEROFAST main goal is to invest and improve the AEROCAPTURE transportation mean. An important step to allow for human expansion into the solar system is to develop advanced transportation systems to move humans and cargo between GEO and LEO, and also returning them from the Moon or from Mars. Typically such vehicle must rely on aerocapture to be mass effective: using atmospheric drag to slow space vehicles is regarded as one of the largest contributors to making both lunar and Martian missions affordable. In the coming decades aerocapture will become one of the core capabilities for planetary transportation. This technology allows for large amount of mass saved (up to 30 %) at launch and is fully adapted to large weight missions (Sample return missions and manned missions): for an insertion into a low Mars orbit with propulsion, 41% of the initial mass is put on final orbit whereas with an aerocapture manoeuvre 82% of the initial mass is put into final orbit. Today the technology readiness level of such an aerocapture mission is roughly 2 to 3 in Europe. AEROFAST goal is to prepare for a flight demonstration on a planet with atmosphere (earth or even more attractive Mars) and to reach TRL 3 to 4 in the frame of this FP7 first call.


Goncalves E.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering | Pinheiro J.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering | Abreu M.,Instituto Nacional Of Engineering | Brandao T.R.S.,Catholic University of Portugal | Silva C.L.M.,Catholic University of Portugal
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

The kinetics of peroxidase thermal inactivation, total phenolic content degradation, and colour (CIE L*a*b*) and texture changes were studied in a temperature range of 70-90 °C for carrots (Daucus carota L.). Peroxidase inactivation, total phenolic content degradation and the lightness colour (L* parameter) change were successfully described by a first-order reaction model. The redness and yellowness colour (a* and b* parameters, respectively) and texture (firmness and energy parameters) changes presented a fractional conversion kinetic model behavior. The temperature effect was well described by the Arrhenius law. All the blanching conditions recommended to reduce peroxidase inactivation to an acceptable level (90% loss of its original activity) ensured good quality retention. However, to obtain a high quality carrot product a balance must be made between colour and total phenolic content losses. Therefore, blanching at 80 °C for 6 min is suggested as a compromise condition to maximize quality. The overall study indicated that colour is a critical parameter to optimize carrot hot water blanching condition. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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