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Zuniga J.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas
Clinical & developmental immunology

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is a major international public health problem. One-third of the world's population is thought to have latent tuberculosis, a condition where individuals are infected by the intracellular bacteria without active disease but are at risk for reactivation, if their immune system fails. Here, we discuss the role of nonspecific inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines and chemokines induced by interaction of innate receptors expressed in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). We also review current information regarding the importance of several cytokines including IL-17/IL-23 in the development of protective cellular and antibody-mediated protective responses against Mtb and their influence in containment of the infection. Finally, in this paper, emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of failure of Mtb control, including the immune dysregulation induced by the treatment with biological drugs in different autoimmune diseases. Further functional studies, focused on the mechanisms involved in the early host-Mtb interactions and the interplay between host innate and acquired immunity against Mtb, may be helpful to improve the understanding of protective responses in the lung and in the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic tools in TB. Source

Selman M.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas | Pardo A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

A growing body of evidence indicates that aberrant activation of alveolar epithelial cells and fibroblasts in an aging lung plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the biopathological processes linking aging with IPF and the mechanisms responsible for the abnormal activation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts have not been elucidated. Many of the hallmarks of aging (e.g., genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cellular senescence) have been proposed as essential mechanisms for the development of IPF; however, these disturbances are not restricted to IPF and also occur in other aging-related lung disorders, primarily chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, an unanswered question is why a current/former smoker of about 60 years of age with shorter telomeres, alveolar epithelial senescence, excessive oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction develops IPF and not COPD; in other words, what makes old lungs specifically susceptible to develop IPF? In this Perspective, we propose an integral model in which the combination of some gene variants and/or gene expression in the aging lung results in the loss of epithelial integrity and consequently in the failure of the alveoli to correctly respond to injury and to face the stress associated with mechanical stretch. Afterward, a distinctive epigenetic "reprogramming" that affects both epithelial cells and fibroblasts provokes, among others, the recapitulation of developmental pathways and the aberrant activation and miscommunication between both cell types, resulting in the exaggerated production and accumulation of extracellular matrix and the subsequent destruction of the lung architecture. Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Guzman-Beltran S.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas | Perez-Torres A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Coronel-Cruz C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Torres-Guerrero H.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Microbes and Infection

Sporothrix schenckii is a human pathogen that causes sporotrichosis, a cutaneous subacute or chronic mycosis. Little is known about the innate immune response and the receptors involved in host recognition and phagocytosis of S. schenckii. Here, we demonstrate that optimal phagocytosis of conidia and yeast is dependent on preimmune human serum opsonisation. THP-1 macrophages efficiently ingested opsonised conidia. Competition with d-mannose, methyl α- d-mannopyranoside, d-fucose, and N-acetyl glucosamine blocked this process, suggesting the involvement of the mannose receptor in binding and phagocytosis of opsonised conidia. Release of TNF-α was not stimulated by opsonised or non-opsonised conidia, although reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced, resulting in the killing of conidia by THP-1 macrophages. Heat inactivation of the serum did not affect conidia internalization, which was markedly decreased for yeast cells, suggesting the role of complement components in yeast uptake. Conversely, release of TNF-α and production of ROS were induced by opsonised and non-opsonised yeast. These data demonstrate that THP-1 macrophages respond to opsonised conidia and yeast through different phagocytic receptors, inducing a differential cellular response. Conidia induces a poor pro-inflammatory response and lower rate of ROS-induced cell death, thereby enhancing the pathogen's survival. © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Source

Guzman-Beltran S.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

Curcumin is a bifunctional antioxidant derived from Curcuma longa. This study identifies curcumin as a neuroprotectant against hemin-induced damage in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) of rats. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, is a highly reactive compound that induces cellular injury. Pretreatment of CGNs with 5-30 M curcumin effectively increased by 2.3-4.9 fold heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and by 5.6-14.3-fold glutathione (GSH) levels. Moreover, 15 M curcumin attenuated by 55% the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, by 94% the reduction of GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, and by 49% the cell death induced by hemin. The inhibition of heme oxygenase system or GSH synthesis with tin mesoporphyrin and buthionine sulfoximine, respectively, suppressed the protective effect of curcumin against hemin-induced toxicity. These data strongly suggest that HO-1 and GSH play a major role in the protective effect of curcumin. Furthermore, it was found that 24 h of incubation with curcumin increases by 1.4-, 2.3-, and 5.2-fold the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase, respectively. Additionally, it was found that curcumin was capable of inducing nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) translocation into the nucleus. These data suggest that the pretreatment with curcumin induces Nrf2 and an antioxidant response that may play an important role in the protective effect of this antioxidant against hemin-induced neuronal death. © 2013 Susana González-Reyes et al. Source

Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, United States Of America, University of Chicago and University of Pittsburgh | Date: 2014-05-14

The present invention relates to the discovery that of a panel of serum or plasma markers may be used to diagnose Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) and distinguish this condition from other lung ailments. It further relates to the identification of markers associated with IPF disease progression.

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