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Rosenthal V.D.,International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium | Rodrigues C.,Medical Research Center | Alvarez-Moreno C.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Madani N.,Sina | And 10 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine

ObjectiveS:: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium's multidimensional approach on the reduction of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients hospitalized in intensive care units. DESIGN:: A prospective active surveillance before-after study. The study was divided into two phases. During phase 1, the infection control team at each intensive care unit conducted active prospective surveillance of ventilator-associated pneumonia by applying the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health Safety Network, and the methodology of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. During phase 2, the multidimensional approach for ventilator-associated pneumonia was implemented at each intensive care unit, in addition to the active surveillance. SETTING:: Forty-four adult intensive care units in 38 hospitals, members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium, from 31 cities of the following 14 developing countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, India, Lebanon, Macedonia, Mexico, Morocco, Panama, Peru, and Turkey. PATIENTS:: A total of 55,507 adult patients admitted to 44 intensive care units in 38 hospitals. INTERVENTIONS:: The International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium ventilator-associated pneumonia multidimensional approach included the following measures: 1) bundle of infection-control interventions; 2) education; 3) outcome surveillance; 4) process surveillance; 5) feedback of ventilator-associated pneumonia rates; and 6) performance feedback of infection-control practices. MEASUREMENTS:: The ventilator-associated pneumonia rates obtained in phase 1 were compared with the rates obtained in phase 2. We performed a time-series analysis to analyze the impact of our intervention. MAIN RESULT:: During phase 1, we recorded 10,292 mechanical ventilator days, and during phase 2, with the implementation of the multidimensional approach, we recorded 127,374 mechanical ventilator days. The rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was 22.0 per 1,000 mechanical ventilator days during phase 1, and 17.2 per 1,000 mechanical ventilator days during phase 2.The adjusted model of linear trend shows a 55.83% reduction in the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia at the end of the study period; that is, the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate was 55.83% lower than it was at the beginning of the study. CONCLUSION:: The implementation the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach for ventilator-associated pneumonia was associated with a significant reduction in the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate in the adult intensive care units setting of developing countries. © 2012 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Source

Cazap E.,Sociedad Latino Americana y del Caribe de Oncologia Medica SLACOM | Buzaid A.,Centro Oncologico Hospital Sirio Libanes | Garbino C.,Grupo Oncologico del Uruguay | Schwartsmann G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.

Background: The BCRF II study presents a systematic review of the norms, recommendations and guidelines that are considered medical care standards (MCS) for breast cancer in 12 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Three key questions from the BCRF I survey data on early detection and diagnosis are presented to identify implementation practice patterns related to MCS. Methods: Information related to MCS was requested from governmental health authorities, cancer institutes, and national scientific and professional societies in 12 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Documents received were reviewed by breast cancer experts from each respective country. Three key survey questions from the BCRF I survey on early detection and diagnosis were reprocessed to provide information related to implementation practice of existing MCS. Results: All countries included in the BCRF II study had medical care standards (MCS) whether published by governmental authorities, national professional or scientific associations, cancer institutes, or adoption of international MCS. Experts reported different practice patterns at a Country level versus a Center level. Overall, 85% of the experts reported that less than 50% of the women with no symptoms undergo a mammography at the Country level compared to 43% at the Center level. For diagnostic suspicion of breast cancer, 80% of experts considered the diagnostic suspicion at a Country level to come from the patient compared to 50% at a Center level. About 30% of patients waited for more than 3 months for a diagnosis at the Country level compared to 7% at the Center level. Conclusion: All the Latin America and Caribbean countries in the study reported the use of similar MCS for breast cancer care. The reported difference between care practiced at a Country level versus a Center level suggests the challenge is not in generating new MCS, but in implementing policies and control mechanisms for compliance with existing MCS, guaranteeing their applicability to all populations. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Figueroa M.P.,CONICET | Lihon J.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Neoplasicas Inen
Biotechnic and Histochemistry

Chalcedony, a microcrystalline form of silica (SiO2), has been found in the human brains of elderly patients by using a standard optical petrographic microscope. We document here our visualization of chalcedony using a Leica TCS SP2 confocal laser scanning microscope. Sections of human brain were collected after autopsy from elderly patients. The autofluorescent character of chalcedony allowed us to obtain three-dimensional images of the crystals and mature prismatic quartz (chalcedony) was observed. Chalcedony occurred as rhombohedral (trigonal) crystals approximately 30 μm in size distributed in patches or aggregates. A less mature silica polymorph of about 1-2 μ in size was detected near the crystals. This is the first time that biogenically- produced crystalline mineral as autofluorescent crystal aggregates has been observed in the human central nervous system of elderly patients using confocal laser scanning microscopy. © 2010 Biological Stain Commission. Source

Mendoza J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez J.,INCan | Hernandez C.,Servicio de Oncologia Medica | Perez-Montiel D.,INCan | And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer

Background:Cisplatin cures over 80% of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), and nucleotide-excision repair (NER) modifies the sensitivity to cisplatin. We explored the association between NER proteins and their polymorphisms with cisplatin sensitivity (CPS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with non-seminomatous (ns)-TGCTs.Methods:The expression of ERCC1 and XPA and the presence of γH2AX were evaluated in cancer cell lines and in fresh ns-TGCTs. The ERCC1 protein was also determined in ns-TGCTs. The differences between CPS and non-CPS cell lines and patients were analysed by Student's t- or χ 2 -tests. The differences in OS were analysed using the log-rank test, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using the Cox model.Results:High ERCC1 expression was observed in the non-CPS cells, and both ERCC1 and γH2AX expressions were augmented after cisplatin treatment. Increased ERCC1 expression was also identified in non-CPS patients. Neither polymorphism was associated with either CPS or OS. The presence of ERCC1 was associated with non-CPS (P=0.05) and adjusted in the prognosis groups. The HR in ERCC1-negative and non-CPS patients was >14.43, and in ERCC1-positive and non-CPS patients the HR was >11.86 (P<0.001).Conclusions:High levels of ERCC1 were associated with non-CPS, suggesting that ERCC1 could be used as a potential indicator of the response to cisplatin and prognosis in ns-TGCTs. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Source

Ribrag V.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Caballero D.,Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca | Ferme C.,Institute Of Cancerologie Gustave Roussy | Zucca E.,Istituto Oncologico della Svizzera Italiana Ospedale San Giovanni | And 12 more authors.

This phase II clinical trial evaluated the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of plitidepsin 3.2 mg/m2 administered as a 1-hour intravenous infusion weekly on days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 weeks in 67 adult patients with relapsed/refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patients were divided into two cohorts: those with non-cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma (n=34) and those with other lymphomas (n=33). Efficacy was evaluated using the International Working Group criteria (1999). Of the 29 evaluable patients with non-cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma, six had a response (overall response rate 20.7%; 95% confidence interval, 8.0%-39.7%), including two complete responses and four partial responses. No responses occurred in the 30 evaluable patients with other lymphomas (including 27 B-cell lymphomas). The most common plitidepsin-related adverse events were nausea, fatigue and myalgia (grade 3 in <10% of cases). Severe laboratory abnormalities (lymphopenia, anemia, thrombo- cytopenia, and increased levels of transaminase and creatine phosphokinase) were transient and easily managed by plitidepsin dose adjustments. The pharmacokinetic profile did not differ from that previously reported in patients with solid tumors. In conclusion, plitidepsin monotherapy has clinical activity in relapsed/refractory T-cell lymphomas. Combinations of plitidepsin with other chemotherapeutic drugs deserve further evaluation in patients with non-cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00884286). © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source

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