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Romao W.,University of Campinas | Schwab N.V.,University of Campinas | Bueno M.I.M.S.,University of Campinas | Sparrapan R.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
Quimica Nova | Year: 2011

In this review recent methods developed and applied to solve criminal occurences related to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse are discussed. In documentoscopy, aging of ink writings, the sequence of line crossings and counterfeiting of documents are aspects to be solved with reproducible, fast and non-destructive methods. In ballistic, the industries are currently producing "lead-free" or "nontoxic" handgun ammunitions, so new methods of gunshot residues characterization are being presented. For drugs analysis, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to provide a relatively simple and selective screening tool to distinguish m-CPP and amphetamines (MDMA) tablets, cocaine and LSD.

de F. Figueiredo R.,Sao Paulo State University | Ambrosio I.B.,Sao Paulo State University | Braganholi D.F.,Sao Paulo State University | Chemale G.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2016

Y chromosome markers have been widely studied due to their various applications in the fields of forensic and evolutionary genetics. In this study, 35 Y-SNPs and 17 Y-STRs were genotyped in 253 males from the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. A total of 18 haplogroups and 243 haplotypes were detected; the haplogroup and haplotype diversities were 0.7794 and 0.9997, respectively. Genetic distance analysis using the Y-STR data showed no statistically significant differences between Espirito Santo and other admixed populations from Brazil. The classification of paternal lineages based on haplogroups showed a predominant European contribution (85.88 %), followed by African (11.37 %) and Amerindian (2.75 %) contributions. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Feitosa R.S.,University of Brasilia | Sodre F.F.,University of Brasilia | Maldaner A.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica
Quimica Nova | Year: 2013

Drugs of abuse are commonly used outside medical or legal settings where their production, marketing and consumption are subject to legal summons and/or intervention. Classified as emerging contaminants, these substances have been recently detected in samples of environmental concern, such as waters and wastewaters. This review presents the state-of-the-art on the methodological approaches used in sample preparation, the main techniques applied in analytical determination at trace levels, as well as the use of information related to the drug or its metabolite concentration in sewage samples to empirically estimate the consumption of drugs of abuse in a city or region.

Lisita A.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | Sano E.E.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Durieux L.,IRD Montpellier
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The rapid and efficient detection of illicit drug cultivation, such as that of Cannabis sativa, is important in reducing consumption. The objective of this study was to identify potential sites of illicit C. sativa plantations located in the semi-arid, southern part of Pernambuco State, Brazil. The study was conducted using an object-based image analysis (OBIA) of Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre high-resolution geometric (SPOT-5 HRG) images (overpass: 31 May, 2007). OBIA considers the target's contextual and geometrical attributes to overcome the difficulties inherent in detecting illicit crops associated with the grower's strategies to conceal their fields and optimizes the spectral information extracted to generate land-cover maps. The capabilities of the SPOT-5 near-infrared and shortwave infrared bands to discriminate herbaceous vegetation with high water content, and employment of the support vector machine classifier, contributed to accomplishing this task. Image classification included multiresolution segmentation with an algorithm available in the eCognition Developer software package. In addition to a SPOT-5 HRG multispectral image with 10 m spatial resolution and a panchromatic image with 2.5 m spatial resolution, first-order indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and ancillary data including land-cover classes, anthropogenic areas, slope, and distance to water sources were also employed in the OBIA. The classification of segments (objects) related to illegal cultivation employed fuzzy logic and fixed-threshold membership functions to describe the following spectral, geometrical, and contextual properties of targets: vegetation density, topography, neighbourhood, and presence of water supplies for irrigation. The results of OBIA were verified from a weight of evidence analysis. Among 15 previously known C. sativa sites identified during police operations conducted on 5-17 June 2007, eight sites were classified as maximum-alert areas (total area of 22.54 km2 within a total area of object-oriented image classification of ∼1800 km2). The approach proposed in this study is feasible for reducing the area to be searched for illicit cannabis cultivation in semi-arid regions. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kuyumjian R.M.,University of Brasilia | Da Cruz E.L.C.C.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | De Araujo Filho J.O.,University of Brasilia | Moura M.A.,University of Brasilia | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Geociencias | Year: 2012

The Paleoproterozoic Tocantins Granite-Greenstone Terrane is composed of granite-gneissic domes and narrow intervening greenstone belts. Tholeiitic metabasalts and calc-alkaline metatonalites have chemical composition characteristic of subduction tectonic environment. The main gold concentrations occur in iron-rich amphibolite, banded iron formation and granitic rocks. It is suggested that the Tocantins Granite-Greenstone Terrane gold occurrences and deposits were formed by dominantly metamorphic hydrothermal fluids during the Brasiliano Orogeny, with granitic contribution. Guide lines for mineral exploration programs for gold in the Tocantins Granite-Greenstone Terrane are presented.

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