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Lucena M.A.M.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Lucena M.A.M.,University of Brasilia | Oliveira M.F.L.,University of Brasilia | Arouca A.M.,University of Brasilia | And 6 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2017

The 3D metal-organic framework (MOF) [Eu(BTC)] (where BTC = trimesic acid) was synthesized in 20 min by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method with a yield of 89%. A structural and spectroscopic study, performed by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, showed that this framework has high crystallinity, thermal stability, and luminescence. This MOF had a red-orange luminescence when excited with ultraviolet (UV) radiation (λ = 254 nm) and a high potential for use as a luminescent marker for gunshot residues (GSR). When added to 9 mm nontoxic ammunition, it greatly improved quality of the crime scene investigation, allowing for direct visualization of the luminescent GSR on the shooter's hand and firearm and at the firing range using only a portable UV lamp. The marked luminescent GSR was easily collected and characterized by nondestructive techniques, including with a Video Spectral Comparator and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, wherein the presence of Eu3+ ions was confirmed. Furthermore, the oral acute toxicity of this MOF was assessed in adult female Wistar rats using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development 423 guidelines. This study classified the MOF [Eu(BTC)] in a less toxic Globally Harmonized System category (category 5), with a LD50 (lethal dose) of 5000 mg/kg, ensuring a wide security range for its application. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Rezende K.C.A.,Federal University of Goais | Moreira R.C.,Federal University of Goais | Logrado L.P.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | Talhavini M.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | And 2 more authors.
Electrophoresis | Year: 2016

This report describes for the first time the use of microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices integrated with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) to investigate the authenticity of seized whiskey samples, which were probably adulterated by simple dilution with tap water. The proposed microfluidic platform was explored for the monitoring of anionic species (Cl− and F−) in both original and tampered samples. The best separations were achieved within 70 s using a running buffer composed of lactic acid and histidine (pH = 5.9). ME-C4D devices were used to analyze samples from three different brands (five samples each). Based on the presence of inorganic anions like Cl−, F−, SO4 2− and NO2 − in different amounts, the authenticity of seized whiskeys was compared to original samples. According to the reported data, the proposed microfluidic platform can be useful to help regulatory authorities in the investigation and monitoring of authenticity of commercialized whiskey beverages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Chemale G.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | Paneto G.G.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Menezes M.A.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | De Freitas J.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | And 3 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2013

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis is usually a last resort in routine forensic DNA casework. However, it has become a powerful tool for the analysis of highly degraded samples or samples containing too little or no nuclear DNA, such as old bones and hair shafts. The gold standard methodology still constitutes the direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products or cloned amplicons from the HVS-1 and HVS-2 (hypervariable segment) control region segments. Identifications using mtDNA are time consuming, expensive and can be very complex, depending on the amount and nature of the material being tested. The main goal of this work is to develop a less labour-intensive and less expensive screening method for mtDNA analysis, in order to aid in the exclusion of non-matching samples and as a presumptive test prior to final confirmatory DNA sequencing. We have selected 14 highly discriminatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on simulations performed by Salas and Amigo (2010) [1] to be typed using SNaPShotTM (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The assay was validated by typing more than 100 HVS-1/HVS-2 sequenced samples. No differences were observed between the SNP typing and DNA sequencing when results were compared, with the exception of allelic dropouts observed in a few haplotypes. Haplotype diversity simulations were performed using 172 mtDNA sequences representative of the Brazilian population and a score of 0.9794 was obtained when the 14 SNPs were used, showing that the theoretical prediction approach for the selection of highly discriminatory SNPs suggested by Salas and Amigo (2010) [1] was confirmed in the population studied. As the main goal of the work is to develop a screening assay to skip the sequencing of all samples in a particular case, a pair-wise comparison of the sequences was done using the selected SNPs. When both HVS-1/HVS-2 SNPs were used for simulations, at least two differences were observed in 93.2% of the comparisons performed. The assay was validated with casework samples. Results show that the method is straightforward and can be used for exclusionary purposes, saving time and laboratory resources. The assay confirms the theoretic prediction suggested by Salas and Amigo (2010) [1]. All forensic advantages, such as high sensitivity and power of discrimination, as also the disadvantages, such as the occurrence of allele dropouts, are discussed throughout the article. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Lisita A.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | Sano E.E.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | Durieux L.,IRD Montpellier
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2013

The rapid and efficient detection of illicit drug cultivation, such as that of Cannabis sativa, is important in reducing consumption. The objective of this study was to identify potential sites of illicit C. sativa plantations located in the semi-arid, southern part of Pernambuco State, Brazil. The study was conducted using an object-based image analysis (OBIA) of Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre high-resolution geometric (SPOT-5 HRG) images (overpass: 31 May, 2007). OBIA considers the target's contextual and geometrical attributes to overcome the difficulties inherent in detecting illicit crops associated with the grower's strategies to conceal their fields and optimizes the spectral information extracted to generate land-cover maps. The capabilities of the SPOT-5 near-infrared and shortwave infrared bands to discriminate herbaceous vegetation with high water content, and employment of the support vector machine classifier, contributed to accomplishing this task. Image classification included multiresolution segmentation with an algorithm available in the eCognition Developer software package. In addition to a SPOT-5 HRG multispectral image with 10 m spatial resolution and a panchromatic image with 2.5 m spatial resolution, first-order indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index and ancillary data including land-cover classes, anthropogenic areas, slope, and distance to water sources were also employed in the OBIA. The classification of segments (objects) related to illegal cultivation employed fuzzy logic and fixed-threshold membership functions to describe the following spectral, geometrical, and contextual properties of targets: vegetation density, topography, neighbourhood, and presence of water supplies for irrigation. The results of OBIA were verified from a weight of evidence analysis. Among 15 previously known C. sativa sites identified during police operations conducted on 5-17 June 2007, eight sites were classified as maximum-alert areas (total area of 22.54 km2 within a total area of object-oriented image classification of ∼1800 km2). The approach proposed in this study is feasible for reducing the area to be searched for illicit cannabis cultivation in semi-arid regions. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Romao W.,University of Campinas | Schwab N.V.,University of Campinas | Bueno M.I.M.S.,University of Campinas | Sparrapan R.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
Quimica Nova | Year: 2011

In this review recent methods developed and applied to solve criminal occurences related to documentoscopy, ballistic and drugs of abuse are discussed. In documentoscopy, aging of ink writings, the sequence of line crossings and counterfeiting of documents are aspects to be solved with reproducible, fast and non-destructive methods. In ballistic, the industries are currently producing "lead-free" or "nontoxic" handgun ammunitions, so new methods of gunshot residues characterization are being presented. For drugs analysis, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to provide a relatively simple and selective screening tool to distinguish m-CPP and amphetamines (MDMA) tablets, cocaine and LSD.


Maldaner A.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | Schmidt L.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica | Locatelli M.A.F.,University of Campinas | Jardim W.F.,University of Campinas | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

This is the first report on the occurrence of cocaine (COC) and benzoylecgonine (BE) residues in six samples collected from different wastewater treatment plants (WTP) located in the Brazilian Federal District (FD). Concentrations of BE in the influent sewage were used to calculate cocaine consumption (kg year -1 per 1000 inhabitants) for each region attended by the WTP from two sampling campaigns (March and June, 2010). Among the WTP studied, samples from Samambaia showed higher concentrations (from 3866 to 2477 ng L -1 of BE and 805 to 579 ng L -1 of COC) and doses per inhabitants (more than 13 doses inhabitant -1 per year). The extrapolation to the whole FD population points out to an annual consumption reaching 1.0 ton of free base cocaine, or 1.1 tons of cocaine hydrochloride. The work also addresses the influence of the cocaine presentation form (free base or hydrochloride) and the integration with chemical profiling results in a more realistic estimate, mainly concerning the viewpoints of forensics and law enforcement. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.


Feitosa R.S.,University of Brasilia | Sodre F.F.,University of Brasilia | Maldaner A.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica
Quimica Nova | Year: 2013

Drugs of abuse are commonly used outside medical or legal settings where their production, marketing and consumption are subject to legal summons and/or intervention. Classified as emerging contaminants, these substances have been recently detected in samples of environmental concern, such as waters and wastewaters. This review presents the state-of-the-art on the methodological approaches used in sample preparation, the main techniques applied in analytical determination at trace levels, as well as the use of information related to the drug or its metabolite concentration in sewage samples to empirically estimate the consumption of drugs of abuse in a city or region.


This article outlines the results of a descriptive study that analyses loss and damage caused by hydrometeorological disasters in Brazil between 2010 and 2014 using the EM DAT (global) and S2iD (national) databases. The analysis shows major differences in the total number of disaster events included in the databases (EMDAT = 36; S2iD = 4,070) and estimated costs of loss and damage (EM-DAT – R$ 9.2 billion; S2iD – R$331.4 billion). The analysis also shows that the five states most affected by these events are Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná in Brazil’s South and Southeast regions and that these results are consistent with the findings of other studies. The costs of disasters were highest for housing, public infrastructure works, collectively used public facilities, other public service facilities, and state health and education facilities. The costs associated with public health facilities were also high. Despite their limitations, both databases demonstrated their usefulness for determining seasonal and long-term trends and patterns, and risk areas, and thus assist decision makers in identifying areas that are most affected by and vulnerable to natural disasters. © 2016, Associacao Brasileira de Pos – Graduacao em Saude Coletiva. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Porto, Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica and São Paulo State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of legal medicine | Year: 2016

Y chromosome markers have been widely studied due to their various applications in the fields of forensic and evolutionary genetics. In this study, 35 Y-SNPs and 17 Y-STRs were genotyped in 253 males from the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil. A total of 18 haplogroups and 243 haplotypes were detected; the haplogroup and haplotype diversities were 0.7794 and 0.9997, respectively. Genetic distance analysis using the Y-STR data showed no statistically significant differences between Espirito Santo and other admixed populations from Brazil. The classification of paternal lineages based on haplogroups showed a predominant European contribution (85.88%), followed by African (11.37%) and Amerindian (2.75%) contributions.


PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Criminalistica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Forensic science international. Genetics | Year: 2013

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis is usually a last resort in routine forensic DNA casework. However, it has become a powerful tool for the analysis of highly degraded samples or samples containing too little or no nuclear DNA, such as old bones and hair shafts. The gold standard methodology still constitutes the direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products or cloned amplicons from the HVS-1 and HVS-2 (hypervariable segment) control region segments. Identifications using mtDNA are time consuming, expensive and can be very complex, depending on the amount and nature of the material being tested. The main goal of this work is to develop a less labour-intensive and less expensive screening method for mtDNA analysis, in order to aid in the exclusion of non-matching samples and as a presumptive test prior to final confirmatory DNA sequencing. We have selected 14 highly discriminatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on simulations performed by Salas and Amigo (2010) to be typed using SNaPShot(TM) (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The assay was validated by typing more than 100 HVS-1/HVS-2 sequenced samples. No differences were observed between the SNP typing and DNA sequencing when results were compared, with the exception of allelic dropouts observed in a few haplotypes. Haplotype diversity simulations were performed using 172 mtDNA sequences representative of the Brazilian population and a score of 0.9794 was obtained when the 14 SNPs were used, showing that the theoretical prediction approach for the selection of highly discriminatory SNPs suggested by Salas and Amigo (2010) was confirmed in the population studied. As the main goal of the work is to develop a screening assay to skip the sequencing of all samples in a particular case, a pair-wise comparison of the sequences was done using the selected SNPs. When both HVS-1/HVS-2 SNPs were used for simulations, at least two differences were observed in 93.2% of the comparisons performed. The assay was validated with casework samples. Results show that the method is straightforward and can be used for exclusionary purposes, saving time and laboratory resources. The assay confirms the theoretic prediction suggested by Salas and Amigo (2010). All forensic advantages, such as high sensitivity and power of discrimination, as also the disadvantages, such as the occurrence of allele dropouts, are discussed throughout the article.

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