Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca

Havana, Cuba

Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca

Havana, Cuba

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Galindo A.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Rodriguez P.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Mellisho C.D.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Torrecillas E.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 5 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2013

Measurements obtained by the continuous monitoring of trunk diameter fluctuations were compared with discrete measurements of midday stem water potential (Ψstem) and midday leaf conductance (gl) in adult pomegranate trees (Punica granatum L. cv. Mollar de Elche). Control plants (T0) were irrigated daily above their crop water requirements in order to attain non-limiting soil water conditions in 2009 and 2010, while T1 plants were subjected to water stress by depriving them of irrigation water for 34 days in 2010, after which time irrigation was restored and plant recovery was studied for 7 days. T1 plants showed a substantial degree of water stress, which developed slowly. Maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) was identified to be the most suitable plant-based indicator for irrigation scheduling in adult pomegranate trees, because its signal:noise ((T1/T0):coefficient of variation) ratio was higher than that for Ψstem ((T1/T0):coefficient of variation) and gl ((T0/T1):coefficient of variation). MDS increased in response to water stress, but when the Ψstem fell below -1.67MPa, the MDS values decreased. For non-limiting water conditions, MDS could be predicted from mean daily air temperature (Tm) through exponential equations fitted to pooled data across several seasons. First-order equations were also obtained by pooling data across several seasons to predict MDS from crop reference evapotranspiration (ETo), mean daily air vapour pressure deficit (VPDm), Tm and solar radiation (Rs), but these should be used only within a certain range of values (ETo, 2.1-7.4mm; VPDm, 0.64-2.96kPa; Tm, 12.1-28.3°C; Rs, 119.4-331.3Wm-2). Hence, automated MDS measurements have the potential to be used in irrigation scheduling of pomegranate, and these values can be normalized to non-limiting water conditions by locally derived empirical relationships with meteorological variables. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Camejo D.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Nicolas E.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Torres W.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Alarcon J.J.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Measurements of leaf stomatal conductance, leaf CO2 assimilation rate, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, and a previously published biochemical model have been used to evaluate the thermo-tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus in two tomato genotypes ('Amalia' and 'Nagcarlang'). The study was carried as two experiments. In Experiment 1, a brief (20 min) increase in leaf temperature to 35°C reduced the photosynthetic rate of 'Amalia' leaves grown at 25°C, but stimulated photosynthesis in 'Nagcarlang', due to an increase in the maximum rate of carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/ oxygenase (VCmax). The heat-sensitive step in 'Amalia' seemed to be the maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax). However, in Experiment 2, there was no significant difference between Jmax at 25°C and 35°C when plants had been acclimatised to these temperatures.


Cruz Z.N.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Rodriguez P.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Galindo A.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Torrecillas E.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2012

No information exists on the mechanisms developed at the level of leaf water relations by pear-jujube trees (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) to confront drought. For this reason, the purpose of the present study was to analyse its leaf water relations in order to clarify the resistance mechanisms (avoidance and tolerance) developed in response to a water stress and during recovery. Field-grown 7-year-old pear-jujube trees (cv. Grande de Albatera) were subjected to three irrigation treatments. Control (T0) plants were drip irrigated (112% ETo) in order to guarantee non-limiting soil water conditions, T1 plants (deficit irrigation, 64% ETo) were drip irrigated according to the criteria used by the grower and T2 plants irrigated as T0 but subjected to water withholding for 36 days and a subsequent re-irrigation at the levels used in T0 for 14 days, during the summer of 2011. The results indicated that pear-jujube plants confront water stress by developing stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms. From the beginning of deficit irrigation (T1) and water withholding (T2) to when maximum water stress levels were achieved, leaf turgor was maintained allowing substantial gas exchange levels and, consequently, good leaf productivity. This leaf turgor maintenance was mainly due to two simultaneous and complementary mechanisms. Leaf conductance and the duration of maximum stomatal opening in water stressed plants decreased in order to control water loss via transpiration, contributing to maintain leaf turgor (stress avoidance mechanisms). Also, the gradual recovery of gl observed after rewatering the plants can be considered as a mechanism for promoting leaf rehydration. In addition, from the beginning of the stress period, active osmotic adjustment operated, also contributing to the maintenance of leaf turgor (stress tolerance mechanism). The high RWCa levels and the possibility of increasing the accumulation of water in the apoplasm in response to water stress, supporting a steeper gradient in water potential between the leaf and the soil, which can be considered another drought tolerance characteristic in pear-jujube. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Rodriguez P.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Mellisho C.D.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Conejero W.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Cruz Z.N.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | And 3 more authors.
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

Adult pomegranate trees (Punica granatum (L.) cv. Mollar de Elche) were submitted to three irrigation treatments. Control (T0) plants were drip irrigated in order to guarantee non-limiting soil water conditions, T1 plants (deficit irrigation) were drip irrigated according to the criteria commonly used by the growers in the area and T2 plants were subjected to water withholding and recovery periods of 34 and 6 days, respectively, during the summer of 2009. The results indicated that pomegranate plants confront water stress by developing stress avoidance and stress tolerance mechanisms. From the time of deficit irrigation (T1) and water withholding (T2) began to be applied, leaf conductance decreased in order to control water loss via transpiration and to avoid leaf turgor loss (stress avoidance mechanism). Close to the end of the stress period, when maximum stress levels had developed, active osmotic adjustment was triggered, contributing to the maintenance of leaf turgor (stress tolerance mechanism). Other drought tolerance characteristics commonly seen in xeromorphic plants were also observed, such as high relative apoplastic water content (42-58%), which would contribute to the retention of water at low leaf water potentials. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Collado-Gonzalez J.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Cruz Z.N.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Rodriguez P.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Galindo A.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

No information exists on the proanthocyanidin content of pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruit, their polymeric types and sizes, and their self-aggregation, or on the effect of different water deficit levels during the fruit maturation period on these compounds. Two trimers, two tetramers, and six B type procyanidin pentamers were identified and quantified for the first time. Water deficit increased the content of procyanidins of low molecular mass, improving their potential bioavailability and possible physiological effects on human health. The tendency of procyanidins to self-aggregate was similar in the edible portion and pit, and was not affected by water deficit. The procyanidin content of fruit from well watered trees increased during domestic cold storage, whereas the fruits from trees suffering severe water stress lost some of their procyanidin content. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Mellisho C.D.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Egea I.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Galindo A.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Rodriguez P.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

No information exits on the effects of water stress on pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits. In this paper, the influence of three irrigation treatments on the physical and chemical characteristics of the fruits of adult pomegranate trees was studied. Control (T0) plants were drip irrigated (60% ETo from the beginning of the season to the end of the first half of linear fruit growth phase, 117% ETo during the second half of linear fruit growth phase and 99% ETo during the end of fruit growth and ripening phase) in order to guarantee non-limiting soil water conditions, T1 plants were drip irrigated according to the criteria frequently used by the growers in the area (32% ETo from the beginning of the season to the end of the first half of linear fruit growth phase, 74% ETo during the second half of linear fruit growth phase and 36% ETo during the end of fruit growth and ripening phase) and T2 plants were irrigated as T1, except during the second half of linear fruit growth phase, in which irrigation was withheld. To ensure the recovery of T2 plants re-irrigation was performed at the levels used in T0. T1 plants achieved a moderate water stress level, whereas T2 plants achieved a more pronounced water stress level, from which they completely recovered when plants were rewatered. During ripening the peel of pomegranate fruits changes to show higher luminosity and greater red saturation. Also, the colour of the arils changes to a more perceptible red colour as a consequence of the increasing total anthocyanin content. However, neither the intense red colour of the arils nor their total phenolic compounds content was correlated with the juice antioxidant capacity. Considerable differences were observed in the response of pomegranate fruits to both deficit irrigation treatments. In this sense, fruits from T1 plants showed a decrease in fruit growth, leading to a lower final fruit size and lower total yield, and some changes in colour and chemical characteristics, which reflected earlier ripening. In contrast, a more pronounced water stress during the second half of the fruit growth phase (T2) was more critical for fruit size than for the chemical characteristics of the fruit, probably because under this situation carbon assimilation should be allocated to the synthesis of primary metabolites, which did not exceeded the amount used for fruit growth to the detriment of the synthesis of carbon-based secondary metabolites. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Falcon-Rodriguez A.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Costales D.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Cabrera J.C.,Materia Nova | Martinez-Tellez M.T.,Research Center en Alimentacion y Desarrollo
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2011

Enzymatic defense responses and protection against Phytophthora nicotianae were studied in tobacco plants treated with chitosan of different molecular weights (MW) and degrees of acetylation (DA). The concentration and mode of chitosan application affected enzymatic induction in tobacco leaves β-1,3-Glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) activity required 10 times the polymer concentration relative to the oligochitosan mixture to induce the highest activity above control when treated by foliar spray, indicating the influence of molecular weight in this response. PAL (EC 4.3.1.5) and POD (EC 1.11.1.6) activities increased above control as a result of the influence of polymer degree of acetylation when treatments were applied by foliar spray. A higher DA favored PAL activity, whereas a lower DA induced higher POD activity. Using an in vitro bioassay, it was found that the three chitosan compounds caused a reduction of the infection index of P. nicotianae in tobacco plants that was dependent on elicitor concentrations. There was a significant relationship between the reduction of the infection index and an increase in PAL activity when chitosan was applied by foliar spray and by substrate drench to the plant rhizosphere. These results demonstrate the influence of chitosan physico-chemical properties in plant-induced resistance and the relevance of particular responses in plant protection against pathogens. © 2011.


Diaz-Abril D.M.,National University of Colombia | Velez-Sanchez J.E.,National University of Colombia | Rodriguez P.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca
Agronomia Colombiana | Year: 2016

Plants adopt physiological defense mechanisms to counteract droughts. In Colombia, there is no information for these mechanisms in pears (Pyrus communis L.), cv. Triunfo de Viena. Therefore, the present study aimed to analyze the hydric conditions of this plant in order to determine if it has developed a mechanism to avoid, reduce, or tolerate water stresses as a defense. This experiment used a pear crop located in the municipality of Sesquile (Colombia), with 16-year-old trees that were subjected to three irrigation treatments: a control that received 100% of this crop’s evapotranspiration (100%ETc), and 73%ETc and 53%ETc treatments were irrigated at 73% and 53% of crop’s evapotranspiration, respectively, for the entire rapid fruit growth period of 2012 to 2013.The results indicated that the irrigation reduction in 53%ETc treatment present an adaptive mechanism in the trees, with a structural change in the cellular wall that allowed for 47% water savings in this fruit growth stage. © 2016, Universidad Nacional de Colombia1. All Rights Reserved.


Rodriguez Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Dalpe Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Seguin S.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Fernandez K.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | And 3 more authors.
Mycotaxon | Year: 2011

Glomus cubense (Glomeraceae, Glomeromycetes) was isolated from a lagoon vegetation area on a clay soil deposition environment in the vicinity of San José de las Lajas, Cuba. The species description is based on spore morphological parameters from in vivo pot cultures and molecular analyses. The new species is characterized by its small, generally irregular in shape, 20-48 × (24-)54-72 μm hyaline to faintly yellow spores that have a 2-layered spore wall and arise in clusters. Phylogenetic analyses of the rDNA ITS region and H+ATPase place the species into the Glomeraceae without close relatives among named Glomus species. Glomus cubense forms mycorrhizal associations with sorghum and leek plants under greenhouse pot-culture growing conditions and with a diversity of crop plants under field conditions. The name cubense refers to Cuba, the country where the species was found. © 2011. Mycotaxon, Ltd.


Rodriguez Pedroso A.T.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Ramirez Arrebato M.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Bautista Banos S.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Cruz Triana A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca | Rivero D.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas Inca
Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola | Year: 2012

Plants produce compounds with antimicrobial properties that can be used for diseases control that affect cultivars of economic interest. The obtention of the vegetal extracts and identification of their active compounds will allow their application against different fungi. In this work we received two vegetal extracts: one aqueous-alcoholic and other plant species Acacia farnesiana. The antifungal activities were evaluated of the two extracts on the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by the percentage of inhibition of mycelial growth in time and were performed for phytochemical analysis. Both extracts showed more 90% of inhibition micelial growth in the first evaluation (72 hours) after of the inoculation. So, the vegetal extracts showed fungicide effect on the fungus. Besides, two vegetal extracts showed the presence of metabolites to microbial activity known as flavonoids, tannins, phenols, alkaloids and saponins.

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