Blair M.W.,Tennessee State University |
Lorigados S.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas
Crop Science | Year: 2016
Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean Sea and has a long history of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation. The crop was introduced to the island along with immigration of Native American tribes both from the west and from the southeast of the Caribbean archipelago. This resulted in both the Andean and Mesoamerican genepools being present in Cuba since pre- Colombian times and opportunities for genepool intermixing in this secondary center of diversity. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been found to be ideal for evaluating introgression in common bean because of their high polymorphism per locus. Therefore, the goal of this study was to use 36 SSR markers to evaluate a collection of 210 common bean landraces and cultivars from Cuba to determine the genetic diversity and common bean population structure found in this part of the Caribbean. The Cuban germplasm was very clearly divided into a majority Mesoamerican group and a minority Andean group. Surprisingly, the level of introgression between the genepools was lower than has been observed in previous studies of germplasm from other secondary centers of diversity. The optimum number of populations was K = 2, and subgroups were not evident, suggesting that only one race of each genepool is found on the island. In conclusion, Cuban beans are most likely to be derived from race Mesoamerica and race Nueva Granada, with very little mixing from other races. The implications of these results on the breeding of common beans in Cuba is discussed. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved.
Alvarez I.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas |
Reynaldo I.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas |
Testillano P.,CSIC - Biological Research Center |
del Carmen Risueno M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center |
Arias M.,Catedra de Anatomia Vegetal
Botanical Studies | Year: 2012
Aluminium toxicity significantly limits crop productivity in acid soils and its effects are primarily root-related. The aim of this paper was to study the effects of aluminium on the morphology and cell structure of rice roots. Different AlCl 3 levels were employed to impose stress conditions. Apical root segments were processed using a Progressive Low Temperature Method (PLT) and Lowycril resin, so that the samples could be cut. The stained sections were viewed and photographed using a Zeiss Optic microscope with an attached digital camera. Root elongation was reduced in seedlings exposed to Al, accompanied by deformed roots. Some structural changes were detected in epidermal and cortical cells. Reduced length accompanied by radial expansion contributed to cell elongation inhibition in different cellular types. Thickened cell walls and a vacuole size increase were also observed. These results provide evidence of the structural changes provoked in rice root cells by toxic levels of aluminium, as well as the morphological changes observed in Al-stressed rice roots in our laboratory.
Corell M.,University of Seville |
Giron I.F.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville |
Moriana A.,University of Seville |
Dell'Amico J.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas |
And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013
Maximum daily trunk shrinkage is a common measurement in irrigation scheduling of fruit trees. But the strong relationship between these measurements and the environment severely limit field applications. Reference baselines are the solution for understanding the influence of environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the extrapolation out of the original conditions is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare several approaches to estimate a reference baseline in an olive orchard where there were no previous data from other seasons. Two orchards, separated 60. m, with different tree density were used. Orchard 1 had greater tree density than orchard 2, though the age and the cultivar were the same. Trunk diameters of both orchards were similar but the crown volume of orchard 2 was slightly lower than orchard 1. The current reference baselines of maximum daily trunk diameter in both orchards were not significantly different between them (p<0.05). In orchard 1, the previous reference baseline was calculated in a 5-year study (the so called multi-seasons approach). The multi-seasons approach was not significantly different in slope but it was in the y-interception to the current reference baselines in both orchards (p<0.05). This approach over-estimated the values in both orchards. Two additional approaches were tested. These latter approaches used data before massive pit hardening to estimate the current reference baseline. One of them used the early data to estimate a complete reference baseline (the so-called early approach). The other (the so-called y-early approach) used the same data only to estimate the y-interception and assumed that the slope was the same as in the multi-seasons approach. The early approach under-estimated the value of maximum daily trunk shrinkage. The early-y approach provided a satisfactory estimation of the reference baseline and improved those obtained with the multi-seasons approach. The limitations and uses in irrigation scheduling are also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Ruiz-Sanchez M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas |
Armada E.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidin |
Munoz Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas |
Garcia de Salamone I.E.,University of Buenos Aires |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011
The response of rice plants to inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Azospirillum brasilense, or combination of both microorganisms, was assayed under well-watered or drought stress conditions. Water deficit treatment was imposed by reducing the amount of water added, but AM plants, with a significantly higher biomass, received the same amount of water as non-AM plants, with a poor biomass. Thus, the water stress treatment was more severe for AM plants than for non-AM plants. The results showed that AM colonization significantly enhanced rice growth under both water conditions, although the greatest rice development was reached in plants dually inoculated under well-watered conditions. Water level did not affect the efficiency of photosystem II, but both AM and A. brasilense inoculations increased this value. AM colonization increased stomatal conductance, particularly when associated with A. brasilense, which enhanced this parameter by 80% under drought conditions and by 35% under well-watered conditions as compared to single AM plants. Exposure of AM rice to drought stress decreased the high levels of glutathione that AM plants exhibited under well-watered conditions, while drought had no effect on the ascorbate content. The decrease of glutathione content in AM plants under drought stress conditions led to enhance lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, inoculation with the AM fungus itself increased ascorbate and proline as protective compounds to cope with the harmful effects of water limitation. Inoculation with A. brasilense also enhanced ascorbate accumulation, reaching a similar level as in AM plants. These results showed that, in spite of the fact that drought stress imposed by AM treatments was considerably more severe than non-AM treatments, rice plants benefited not only from the AM symbiosis but also from A. brasilense root colonization, regardless of the watering level. However, the beneficial effects of A. brasilense on most of the physiological and biochemical traits of rice plants were only clearly visible when the plants were mycorrhized. This microbial consortium was effective for rice plants as an acceptable and ecofriendly technology to improve plant performance and development. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.
Herrera-Peraza R.A.,Institute Ecologia y Sistematica |
Hamel C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Fernandez F.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas |
Ferrer R.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas |
Furrazola E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2011
Consistency of response to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation is required for efficient use of AM fungi in plant production. Here, we found that the response triggered in plants by an AM strain depends on the properties of the soil where it is introduced. Two data sets from 130 different experiments assessing the outcome of a total of 548 replicated single inoculation trials conducted either in soils with a history of (1) high input agriculture (HIA; 343 replicated trials) or (2) in more pristine soils from coffee plantations (CA; 205 replicated trials) were examined. Plant response to inoculation with different AM strains in CA soils planted with coffee was related to soil properties associated with soil types. The strains Glomus fasciculatum-like and Glomus etunicatum-like were particularly performant in soil relatively rich in nutrients and organic matter. Paraglomus occultum and Glomus mosseae-like performed best in relatively poor soils, and G. mosseae and Glomus manihotis did best in soils of medium fertility. Acaulospora scrobiculata, Diversispora spurca, G. mosseae-like, G. mosseae and P. occultum stimulated coffee growth best in Chromic, Eutric Alluvial Cambisol, G. fasciculatum-like and G. etunicatum-like in Calcaric Cambisol and G. manihotis, in Chromic, Eutric Cambisols. Acaulospora scrobiculata and Diversispora spurca strains performed best in Chromic Alisols and Rodic Ferralsols. There was no significant relationship between plant response to AM fungal strains and soil properties in the HIA soil data set, may be due to variation induced by the use of different host plant species and to modification of soil properties by a history of intensive production. Consideration of the performance of AM fungal strains in target soil environments may well be the key for efficient management of the AM symbiosis in plant production. © 2010 The Author(s).