Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas

San José de las Lajas, Cuba

Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas

San José de las Lajas, Cuba

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Giron I.F.,Institute Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia CSIC | Corell M.,University of Seville | Galindo A.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Torrecillas E.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 5 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2015

Pit hardening period is the phenological stage when water stress is recommended in regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in olive trees. In table olive trees, fruit growth is a very important process which could affect the final profit of the yield. RDI scheduling based on water status measurements could improve water management, but accurate threshold values are needed. Previous works in low fruit load conditions suggested -1.8MPa of midday stem water potential as "first step" of water stress level where no variations of fruit growth have been detected. The aim of this work is to describe the physiological response of table olive trees with a significant yield in a moderate water stress conditions during pit hardening period. Water relations of Control (no water stress) trees and Stressed trees were studied in a mature table olive orchard in Seville (Spain). Control trees were irrigated with 100% of ETc and values around field capacity were measured. Irrigation in Stressed trees was withdrawn during pit hardening period, and they were irrigated as Control in the rest of the experiment. Fruit growth was not affected until the last days of the deficit period, though midday stem water potential and maximum leaf conductance measurements reached minimum values a few days after the beginning of the water stress period. Such responses suggest two phases in the water stress period. At the beginning of the experiment, the physiological response of the trees (osmotic adjustment and trunk dehydration in the present work) compensated the decrease in water potential. In this phase, leaves and fruits are similar water sink in the shoots. During the last days of the drought period, the reduction of the osmotic adjustment and the greater decrease of fruit water potential transform fruits in more strength water sink than leaves. These changes produced a decrease in the fruit growth. The recovery, though it was not complete, increase fruit size as the same level than Control. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Corell M.,University of Seville | Giron I.F.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville | Moriana A.,University of Seville | Dell'Amico J.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013

Maximum daily trunk shrinkage is a common measurement in irrigation scheduling of fruit trees. But the strong relationship between these measurements and the environment severely limit field applications. Reference baselines are the solution for understanding the influence of environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the extrapolation out of the original conditions is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare several approaches to estimate a reference baseline in an olive orchard where there were no previous data from other seasons. Two orchards, separated 60. m, with different tree density were used. Orchard 1 had greater tree density than orchard 2, though the age and the cultivar were the same. Trunk diameters of both orchards were similar but the crown volume of orchard 2 was slightly lower than orchard 1. The current reference baselines of maximum daily trunk diameter in both orchards were not significantly different between them (p<0.05). In orchard 1, the previous reference baseline was calculated in a 5-year study (the so called multi-seasons approach). The multi-seasons approach was not significantly different in slope but it was in the y-interception to the current reference baselines in both orchards (p<0.05). This approach over-estimated the values in both orchards. Two additional approaches were tested. These latter approaches used data before massive pit hardening to estimate the current reference baseline. One of them used the early data to estimate a complete reference baseline (the so-called early approach). The other (the so-called y-early approach) used the same data only to estimate the y-interception and assumed that the slope was the same as in the multi-seasons approach. The early approach under-estimated the value of maximum daily trunk shrinkage. The early-y approach provided a satisfactory estimation of the reference baseline and improved those obtained with the multi-seasons approach. The limitations and uses in irrigation scheduling are also discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Moriana A.,University of Seville | Moreno F.,Institute Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia CSIC | Giron I.F.,Institute Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia CSIC | Conejero W.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

Maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) is the parameter of daily cycle of trunk diameter most widely suggested in irrigation scheduling for several fruit trees. However, as in other plant-measured approaches, the irrigation decision may be difficult due to the influence of the environment on the values obtained. Reference equations of MDS have been established in order to avoid the effects of environmental conditions. Such equations are usually related to simple meteorological data, in order to easily estimate MDS values in full-irrigated conditions. This paper studies the influence of fruit load and the inter-annual variations on the reference equation of MDS in olive trees. These reference equations were calculated during 4 seasons in a full-irrigated orchard and the equations were validated with the data from a different season. The MDS values were related to vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and temperature taken near the experimental orchard. In addition, meteorological data were considered as mean daily or as midday values; only for temperature was the maximum daily value also used. The validation of the equations was made using the fits with all the meteorological data considered (midday and mean daily of VPD and temperature). In addition, two different fits were used in each meteorological data-one according to fruit load and other with the complete pool of data. The equations fit were significantly different each season in all the meteorological data considered. However, seasons with similar fruit load were more similar to each other. In both meteorological data considered (VPD and temperature) the midday values improved the fit in respect to mean daily values. The equations obtained with maximum daily temperature were similar in accuracy to the one of midday. The reference equations in which temperature was used obtained a better fit that the ones calculated with VPD. No significant differences were found in the validation when equations according to fruit load or the complete pool data were compared. The limitations and usefulness of these reference equations are also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Moriana A.,University of Seville | Corell M.,University of Seville | Giron I.F.,Institute Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia CSIC | Conejero W.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 3 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to establish threshold TGR and MDS values which could be used in regulated deficit irrigation in future work. Three irrigation treatments were performed during three seasons in a 37 year-old table olive orchard in Seville (Spain). Control treatment was irrigated with 125% of the crop evapotranspiration. Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments were performed according to the phenological stage of the trees and different water stress levels. RDI trees were irrigated only when the threshold values of water stress level was reached. Water stress conditions were applied during the massive pit hardening period (phase II, RDI-2) or during this period and the shoot-flowering period (phase I, RDI-12). The water stress level was performed with the trunk growth rate (TGR) during phase I and recovery and maximum daily shrinkage signal (MDS signal) during phase II. Both parameters were calculated as relative values of the Control trees. TGR threshold values varied from equal to Control (RDI-2) or 0.25μm day-1 less than Control (RDI-12) during phase I. MDS signal (ratio between MDS in RDI vs MDS Control) threshold values varied from 0.5 (RDI-12) to 0.75 (RDI-2). In the recovery period, trees were irrigated when TGR values were lower than Control. This scheduled changed the amount of applied water between high and low fruit load seasons. The total amount of applied water in RDI trees oscillated from 38 to 160mm, depending on the season and the treatment. The yield was not significantly different between Control and deficit treatments. Fruit volume and number of fruits was affected for the irrigation. Limitations and management of TDF in irrigation scheduling is discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Dell'Amico J.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Moriana A.,University of Seville | Corell M.,University of Seville | Giron I.F.,Institute Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia CSIC | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

The scarcity of water for agricultural use is producing a generalization of deficit irrigations in most of the fruit trees. Regulated deficit irrigation in olive trees is scheduled with a period of water stress during the pit hardening phase with low or, even, no decrease in yield. During this phenological stage, fruit is a great sink of assimilates and competes with vegetative growth, producing a significant change in the water relation of the tree. The aim of this work is to study the water relations in leaves and fruits in a period of drought during the phenological stage of pit hardening in a mature (43-year-old) table olive orchard. Water relations of leaves and fruits were compared between a Control of fully irrigated trees and Stressed trees (with a period of drought from 1 week after the beginning of pit hardening until 1 week before harvest). The water stress conditions were considered as low level, according with the stem water potential data. Leaf water relations were quickly affected with a reduction of midday stem water potential and turgor pressure at 14 days after the beginning of the drought (DABD). Leaf osmotic adjustment was measured only at the end of the drought cycle (63. DABD). On the other hand, fruit water relations were affected slowly and only osmotic potential was reduced at 14. DABD. Such variations produced a change in the source of water flow from xylem to phloem according to the variations in leaf-fruit water potential. The pattern of adaptation of leaves and fruit during the drought cycle and the relationship between them is discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Blair M.W.,Tennessee State University | Lorigados S.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas
Crop Science | Year: 2016

Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean Sea and has a long history of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation. The crop was introduced to the island along with immigration of Native American tribes both from the west and from the southeast of the Caribbean archipelago. This resulted in both the Andean and Mesoamerican genepools being present in Cuba since pre- Colombian times and opportunities for genepool intermixing in this secondary center of diversity. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been found to be ideal for evaluating introgression in common bean because of their high polymorphism per locus. Therefore, the goal of this study was to use 36 SSR markers to evaluate a collection of 210 common bean landraces and cultivars from Cuba to determine the genetic diversity and common bean population structure found in this part of the Caribbean. The Cuban germplasm was very clearly divided into a majority Mesoamerican group and a minority Andean group. Surprisingly, the level of introgression between the genepools was lower than has been observed in previous studies of germplasm from other secondary centers of diversity. The optimum number of populations was K = 2, and subgroups were not evident, suggesting that only one race of each genepool is found on the island. In conclusion, Cuban beans are most likely to be derived from race Mesoamerica and race Nueva Granada, with very little mixing from other races. The implications of these results on the breeding of common beans in Cuba is discussed. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved.


Alvarez I.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Reynaldo I.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Testillano P.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | del Carmen Risueno M.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Arias M.,Catedra de Anatomia Vegetal
Botanical Studies | Year: 2012

Aluminium toxicity significantly limits crop productivity in acid soils and its effects are primarily root-related. The aim of this paper was to study the effects of aluminium on the morphology and cell structure of rice roots. Different AlCl 3 levels were employed to impose stress conditions. Apical root segments were processed using a Progressive Low Temperature Method (PLT) and Lowycril resin, so that the samples could be cut. The stained sections were viewed and photographed using a Zeiss Optic microscope with an attached digital camera. Root elongation was reduced in seedlings exposed to Al, accompanied by deformed roots. Some structural changes were detected in epidermal and cortical cells. Reduced length accompanied by radial expansion contributed to cell elongation inhibition in different cellular types. Thickened cell walls and a vacuole size increase were also observed. These results provide evidence of the structural changes provoked in rice root cells by toxic levels of aluminium, as well as the morphological changes observed in Al-stressed rice roots in our laboratory.


Ruiz-Sanchez M.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidín | Ruiz-Sanchez M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Aroca R.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidín | Munoz Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2010

Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important crop for human consumption, providing staple food for more than half of the world's population. Rice is conventionally grown under flooded conditions for most of its growing cycle. However, about half of the rice area in the world does not have sufficient water to maintain optimal growing conditions and yield is reduced by drought. One possible way to increase rice production in order to meet the rice demand is to improve its drought tolerance by means of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. Thus, AM and non-AM rice plants were maintained under well-watered conditions or were subjected to moderate and severe drought stress for 15 d. After that, half of the plants from each treatment were harvested, while the other half were allowed to recover from drought for additional 25 d. The results showed that rice can benefit from the AM symbiosis and improve their long-term development after a drought stress period. In fact, at each watering level, AM plants showed about 50% enhanced shoot fresh weight as compared to non-AM plants. The AM symbiosis enhanced the plant photosynthetic efficiency under stress over 40%, induced the accumulation of the antioxidant molecule glutathione and reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and the oxidative damage to lipids in these plants. Thus, these combined effects enhanced the plant performance after a drought stress period. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Ruiz-Sanchez M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Armada E.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidín | Munoz Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Garcia de Salamone I.E.,University of Buenos Aires | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

The response of rice plants to inoculation with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Azospirillum brasilense, or combination of both microorganisms, was assayed under well-watered or drought stress conditions. Water deficit treatment was imposed by reducing the amount of water added, but AM plants, with a significantly higher biomass, received the same amount of water as non-AM plants, with a poor biomass. Thus, the water stress treatment was more severe for AM plants than for non-AM plants. The results showed that AM colonization significantly enhanced rice growth under both water conditions, although the greatest rice development was reached in plants dually inoculated under well-watered conditions. Water level did not affect the efficiency of photosystem II, but both AM and A. brasilense inoculations increased this value. AM colonization increased stomatal conductance, particularly when associated with A. brasilense, which enhanced this parameter by 80% under drought conditions and by 35% under well-watered conditions as compared to single AM plants. Exposure of AM rice to drought stress decreased the high levels of glutathione that AM plants exhibited under well-watered conditions, while drought had no effect on the ascorbate content. The decrease of glutathione content in AM plants under drought stress conditions led to enhance lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, inoculation with the AM fungus itself increased ascorbate and proline as protective compounds to cope with the harmful effects of water limitation. Inoculation with A. brasilense also enhanced ascorbate accumulation, reaching a similar level as in AM plants. These results showed that, in spite of the fact that drought stress imposed by AM treatments was considerably more severe than non-AM treatments, rice plants benefited not only from the AM symbiosis but also from A. brasilense root colonization, regardless of the watering level. However, the beneficial effects of A. brasilense on most of the physiological and biochemical traits of rice plants were only clearly visible when the plants were mycorrhized. This microbial consortium was effective for rice plants as an acceptable and ecofriendly technology to improve plant performance and development. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.


Herrera-Peraza R.A.,Institute Ecologia y Sistematica | Hamel C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Fernandez F.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Ferrer R.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas | Furrazola E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Agricolas
Mycorrhiza | Year: 2011

Consistency of response to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation is required for efficient use of AM fungi in plant production. Here, we found that the response triggered in plants by an AM strain depends on the properties of the soil where it is introduced. Two data sets from 130 different experiments assessing the outcome of a total of 548 replicated single inoculation trials conducted either in soils with a history of (1) high input agriculture (HIA; 343 replicated trials) or (2) in more pristine soils from coffee plantations (CA; 205 replicated trials) were examined. Plant response to inoculation with different AM strains in CA soils planted with coffee was related to soil properties associated with soil types. The strains Glomus fasciculatum-like and Glomus etunicatum-like were particularly performant in soil relatively rich in nutrients and organic matter. Paraglomus occultum and Glomus mosseae-like performed best in relatively poor soils, and G. mosseae and Glomus manihotis did best in soils of medium fertility. Acaulospora scrobiculata, Diversispora spurca, G. mosseae-like, G. mosseae and P. occultum stimulated coffee growth best in Chromic, Eutric Alluvial Cambisol, G. fasciculatum-like and G. etunicatum-like in Calcaric Cambisol and G. manihotis, in Chromic, Eutric Cambisols. Acaulospora scrobiculata and Diversispora spurca strains performed best in Chromic Alisols and Rodic Ferralsols. There was no significant relationship between plant response to AM fungal strains and soil properties in the HIA soil data set, may be due to variation induced by the use of different host plant species and to modification of soil properties by a history of intensive production. Consideration of the performance of AM fungal strains in target soil environments may well be the key for efficient management of the AM symbiosis in plant production. © 2010 The Author(s).

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