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Correa C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ruschel C.F.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Bento F.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ferrao M.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ferrao M.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Of Bioanalitica Inct Bioanalitica
Revista Virtual de Quimica | Year: 2015

Currently, 7 % of biodiesel are added to diesel (B7) sold throughout Brazil. The soybean oil and beef tallow are the most used, with a share of 95.6 % in production. In this context, this paper presents an analytical methodology based on multivariate control charts associated with the Fourier transform infrared by attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR), for the control and quality assurance of the mixtures of tallow biodiesel with soybean biodiesel. The charts have been built using Net Analyte Signal (NAS) generating three control charts: the NAS chart that corresponds to the analyte in the sample (in this case biodiesel tallow), the interference chart corresponds to the other constituent in the sample (in this case only soybean biodiesel) and the chart residues corresponds to nonsystematic variation. Thus, it was possible to identify tallow biodiesel content in the blend, by chart NAS, and remaining problems in the production process as the low degree of conversion of the methyl esters. Based on the results achieved this analytical methodology is promising, because in a single analysis it is possible check the quality of soybean biodiesel and its blends with biodiesel from tallow. Source


Ruschel C.F.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ferrao M.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ferrao M.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Of Bioanalitica Inct Bioanalitica | Dos Santos F.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Samios D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Quimica Nova | Year: 2016

In this work, Doehlert experimental design was used to optimize the Transesterification Double Step Process (TDSP) method of methyl soybean oil biodiesel production which starts with a basic catalysis followed by an acidic catalysis. The conversion values were calculated from NMR spectra. Response surface was used to show the results of the interactions between the variables. This experimental design evaluated variables like catalyst and alcohol amount for the basic catalysis and time and temperature for the acidic catalysis. According to results obtained after Doehlert design application the alcohol amount was the main factor that influenced on the basic catalysis but for the acidic catalysis both time and temperature are important and their effects are opposite. It resulted on excellent conversions for both steps obtaining for the basic catalysis about 100% when was used like optimal conditions catalyst amount equal to 0.40 g and volume of methanol equal to 60 mL and for the acidic catalysis about 99% when was used like optimal conditions temperature of 65°C and 90 minutes for reaction time. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira de Quimica. All rights reserved. Source


Ruschel C.F.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Huang C.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Samios D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ferrao M.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ferrao M.F.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Of Bioanalitica Inct Bioanalitica
Quimica Nova | Year: 2014

In this study, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to classify blends produced from diesel S500 and different kinds of biodiesel produced by the TDSP methodology. The different kinds of biodiesel studied in this work were produced from three raw materials: soybean oil, waste cooking oil and hydrogenated vegetable oil. Methylic and ethylic routes were employed for the production of biodiesel. HCA and PCA were performed on the data from attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, showing the separation of the blends into groups according to biodiesel content present in the blends and to the kind of biodiesel used to form the mixtures. Source


Parisotto G.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Parisotto G.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Of Bioanalitica Inct Bioanalitica | Ferrao M.F.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Muller A.L.H.,Federal University of Santa Maria | And 8 more authors.
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2010

The total acid number (TAN) was determined in the atmospheric residue (AR) and vacuum residue (VR) of the petroleum distillation process using mid-infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection in association with chemometric methods. Calibration and prediction sets consisted of 44 and 13 samples, respectively (16 AR samples and 41 VR samples). Calibration models were developed using three variable-selection models: interval partial least squares (iPLS), synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS), and backward interval partial least squares (biPLS). Different treatments and preprocessing steps were also evaluated for development of the models. The treatment based on the first derivative with a Savitzky-Golay filter and the mean centered was selected for model construction. A root-mean-square error of prediction of 0.164 mg g -1 of KOH was achieved using the biPLS algorithm with spectra divided into 20 intervals and combinations of 5 intervals (2992-2826, 1823-1657, 1656-1490, 1489-1323, and 821-655 cm-1). This model (biPLS20) showed a correlation coefficient of 0.991 between reference and predicted values. The proposed method for TAN determination allowed a fast analysis, and it is possible to apply it for quality control in industrial processes with advantages when compared with the method recommended by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 664-09). © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

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