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Cerqueira O.L.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Truesdell P.,Queen's University | Baldassarre T.,Queen's University | Vilella-Arias S.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 9 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Signaling via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Src kinase pathways promote triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell invasion and tumor metastasis. Here, we address the role of Cdc42-interacting protein-4 (CIP4) in TNBC metastasis in vivo, and profile CIP4 expression in human breast cancer patients. In human TNBC cells, CIP4 knock-down (KD) led to less sustained activation of Erk kinase and impaired cell motility compared to control cells. This correlated with significant defects in 3D invasion of surrounding extracellular matrix by CIP4 KD TNBC cells when grown as spheroid colonies. In mammary orthotopic xenograft assays using both human TNBC cells (MDAMB- 231, HCC 1806) and rat MTLn3 cells, CIP4 silencing had no overt effect on tumor growth, but significantly reduced the incidence of lung metastases in each tumor model. In human invasive breast cancers, high CIP4 levels was significantly associated with high tumor stage, TNBC and HER2 subtypes, and risk of progression to metastatic disease. Together, these results implicate CIP4 in promoting metastasis in TNBCs.

Fachel A.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Tahira A.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Vilella-Arias S.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Maracaja-Coutinho V.,University of Sao Paulo | And 8 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Intronic and intergenic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging gene expression regulators. The molecular pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still poorly understood, and in particular, limited studies are available for intronic lncRNAs expressed in RCC.Methods: Microarray experiments were performed with custom-designed arrays enriched with probes for lncRNAs mapping to intronic genomic regions. Samples from 18 primary RCC tumors and 11 nontumor adjacent matched tissues were analyzed. Meta-analyses were performed with microarray expression data from three additional human tissues (normal liver, prostate tumor and kidney nontumor samples), and with large-scale public data for epigenetic regulatory marks and for evolutionarily conserved sequences.Results: A signature of 29 intronic lncRNAs differentially expressed between RCC and nontumor samples was obtained (false discovery rate (FDR) <5%). A signature of 26 intronic lncRNAs significantly correlated with the RCC five-year patient survival outcome was identified (FDR <5%, p-value ≤0.01). We identified 4303 intronic antisense lncRNAs expressed in RCC, of which 22% were significantly (p <0.05) cis correlated with the expression of the mRNA in the same locus across RCC and three other human tissues. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of those loci pointed to 'regulation of biological processes' as the main enriched category. A module map analysis of the protein-coding genes significantly (p <0.05) trans correlated with the 20% most abundant lncRNAs, identified 51 enriched GO terms (p <0.05). We determined that 60% of the expressed lncRNAs are evolutionarily conserved. At the genomic loci containing the intronic RCC-expressed lncRNAs, a strong association (p <0.001) was found between their transcription start sites and genomic marks such as CpG islands, RNA Pol II binding and histones methylation and acetylation.Conclusion: Intronic antisense lncRNAs are widely expressed in RCC tumors. Some of them are significantly altered in RCC in comparison with nontumor samples. The majority of these lncRNAs is evolutionarily conserved and possibly modulated by epigenetic modifications. Our data suggest that these RCC lncRNAs may contribute to the complex network of regulatory RNAs playing a role in renal cell malignant transformation. © 2013 Fachel et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Beckedorff F.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Sena Amaral M.,University of Sao Paulo | Deocesano-Pereira C.,University of Sao Paulo | Verjovski-Almeida S.,University of Sao Paulo | Verjovski-Almeida S.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Em Oncogenomica
Bioscience Reports | Year: 2013

LncRNAs (long non-coding RNAs) have emerged as key molecular players in the regulation of gene expression in different biological processes. Their involvement in epigenetic processes includes the recruitment of histonemodifying enzymes and DNA methyltransferases, leading to the establishment of chromatin conformation patterns that ultimately result in the fine control of genes. Some of these genes are related to tumorigenesis and it is well documented that the misregulation of epigenetic marks leads to cancer. In this review, we highlight how some of the lncRNAs implicated in cancer are involved in the epigenetic control of gene expression. While very few lncRNAs have already been identified as players in determining the cancer-survival outcome in a number of different cancer types, for most of the lncRNAs associated with epigenetic regulation only their altered pattern of expression in cancer is demonstrated. Thanks to their tissue-specificity features, lncRNAs have already been proposed as diagnostic markers in specific cancer types. We envision the discovery of a wealth of novel spliced and unspliced intronic lncRNAs involved in epigenetic networks or in highly location-specific epigenetic control, which might be predominantly altered in specific cancer subtypes. We expect that the characterization of new lncRNA (long non-coding RNA)-protein and lncRNA-DNA interactions will contribute to the discovery of potential lncRNA targets for use in therapies against cancer. © 2013 The Author(s).

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