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Cardoso C.A.L.,UEMS | Cardoso C.A.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Machado M.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Caramao E.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Caramao E.B.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Em Energia E Meio Ambiente
Renewable Energy | Year: 2016

Brazilian food industry employs several kinds of fruits in manufacturing food products, including the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomiaaculeata). The two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detector (GC × GC/TOFMS) was employed to analyze bio-oils generated from the endorcap, bark and fiber of bocaiuva residues. The bio-oil generated from the endocarp proved to be of the highest complexity in the set with 151 tentatively identified compounds. On the other hand, the bio-oils generated from the bark and the fiber led to 111 and 78 tentatively identified compounds, respectively. Using standards, 24 compounds (59.91% of the total) were confirmed in the bio-oil of bark, while 28 compounds (42.23%) and 19 compounds (47.60%) were confirmed for fiber and endocarp bio-oils, respectively. In bio-oils of endocarp and bark the compounds were identified and classified as phenols, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, anhydrides and hydrocarbons. There was a predominance of hydrocarbons in the bio-oils of fiber, with no identification of ethers, anhydrides and aldehydes. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pereira da Silva Maciel G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Machado M.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Barbara J.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Molin D.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 4 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2016

GC × GC/TOFMS was applied in the characterization of organic extracts, which were obtained by solid phase extraction (SPE) with C18 commercial cartridges and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using three solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform), from the aqueous phase generated during the pyrolysis of sugarcane straw. Many oxygenated compounds were identified and classified as acids, phenols, aldehydes and ketones, with a high predominance of phenolic compounds, mainly catechol. GC × GC/TOFMS coupled to some computational tools allowed the identification and classification of the compounds according to their chemical class, number of carbons, number of substituents in the alkyl chains, molecular weight and main peaks in fragmentation spectra. Some identifications were only possible to detect using spectral deconvolution of the mass spectra, and it was possible to clearly classify a series of alkyl phenols (from C1 to C4 alkyl substitutes) and alkyl benzenediols (probably catechols, from C1 to C3 alkyl substitutes). A sequential combination of the pre-concentration of the analytescombined with high-resolution techniques of separation and identification allowed the total characterization of these compounds in the aqueous phase. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


dos Santos A.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Polidoro A.D.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Schneider J.K.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | da Cunha M.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 7 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2015

This work combines the analytical capability of GC. ×. GC/TOFMS, the use of retention indices and adequate software tools for the study of essential oils of Piper regnellii (Miq.) C. DC. (pariparoba) growing wild in "cerrado" landscape, Central-West region, Brazil. The leaves, stems and flowers of P. regnellii generated essential oils with 163, 119 and 110 compounds tentatively identified, respectively. The major compounds in each essential oil were approximately the same, except dill apiole, which was concentrated more highly in the stems. The major compounds were: myrcene, anethole E and bicyclogermacrene (22%, 19% and 5%, respectively) in leaves, anethole E, dill apiole and myrcene (20%, 19% and 16%, respectively) in stems and anethole E, myrcene and bicyclogermacrene (24%, 18% and 9%, respectively) in flowers. This is the first time that this plant was analyzed by GC. ×. GC/TOFMS and this technique allows identification of a higher number of compounds when compared to traditional one-dimensional chromatography. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Lazzari E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Schena T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Primaz C.T.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | da Silva Maciel G.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Mango seed waste consists of tegument and almond and represents a considerable environmental problem in Brazil, due to the large amounts produced in the industrial processing of the fruit. An interesting alternative of utilising the mango seed waste is in the production of bio-oil by pyrolysis. The aim of this study was to produce bio-oil by pyrolysis of mango seed waste and observe its detailed chemical composition. The biomass, tegument and almond, were submitted to a pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor at different final temperatures (450. °C/550. °C and 650. °C). The higher bio-oil yield obtained for tegument was 38.8% at 650. °C and for almond 28.1% at 450. °C. The bio-oils detailed compositions were investigated using GC. ×. GC/TOFMS allied to software tools, retention index and dispersion graphics. A total number of 108 and 120 compounds tentatively identified in tegument-bio-oil and almond-bio-oil, respectively were found. The chemical compositions in each bio-oil were different. The major classes were: phenols (32.6%) and ketones (22.9%) in tegument-bio-oil and ketones (20.6%), acids (16.8%) and hydrocarbons (7.2%) in almond bio-oil. This is the first time that bio-oil has been produced by pyrolysis of mango seed waste and these bio-oils showed potential for the production of chemical and liquid fuels, proving to be a good option for the destination of this waste. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

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