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Villarreal-Molina T.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen | Posadas-Romero C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez Incich | Romero-Hidalgo S.,INMEGEN | Antunez-Arguelles E.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: ABCA1 genetic variation is known to play a role in HDL-C levels and various studies have also implicated ABCA1 variation in cardiovascular risk. The functional ABCA1/R230C variant is frequent in the Mexican population and has been consistently associated with low HDL-C concentrations. Although it has been associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not known whether it is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Aim: The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the ABCA1/R230C variant is associated with premature CAD in a case-control association study (GEA or Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease), and to explore whether BMI modulates the effect of the C230 allele on other metabolic traits using a population-based design. Results: The C230 allele was significantly associated with both lower HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD as compared to controls (OR = 0.566; Padd = 1.499×10-5). In addition, BMI modulated the effect of R230C on body fat distribution, as the correlation between BMI and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) was negative in RR homozygous individuals, but positive in premenopausal women bearing the C230 allele, with a statistically significant interaction (P = 0.005). BMI-R230C interaction was also significant for triglyceride levels in women regardless of their menopausal status (P = 0.036). Conclusion: This is the first study assessing the effect of the R230C/ABCA1 variant in remature CAD. C230 was associated with both decreased HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD, and gender-specific BMI-R230C interactions were observed for different metabolic traits. These interactions may help explain inconsistencies in associations, and underscore the need to further analyze interactions of this functional and frequent variant with diet, exercise and other environmental factors. © 2012 Villarreal-Molina et al. Source

Gutierrez-Vidal R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Vega-Badillo J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Reyes-Fermin L.M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Hernandez-Perez H.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 12 more authors.
Annals of Hepatology | Year: 2015

Background and aims. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) was recently described as a new adipokine protective for hepatic steatosis and other obesity-related complications in the mouse model. To date, SFRP5 expression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has not been fully assessed in humans. We measured circulating SFRP5 levels and its expression in liver and adipose tissue, and evaluated its association with NAFLD in morbidly obese women. Material and methods. Fifty-four morbidly obese women undergoing bariatric surgery were included in the study. Liver biopsies were used for histology and hepatic triglyceride content quantification. Circulating SFRP5 levels were measured through enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and SFRP5 expression was performed in hepatic and adipose tissue (subcutaneous and visceral). Results. Although circulating SFRP5 levels showed a tendency to decrease with NAFLD progression, no significant differences were observed among non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, and control subjects. Hepatic SFRP5 expression showed a negative correlation with hepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.349, P = 0.016 for mRNA and r = -0.291, P = 0.040 for SRFP5 protein) and ALT serum levels (r = -0.437, P = 0.001 for SRFP5 protein). In addition, hepatic SFRP5 protein levels were significantly lower in NASH than in control subjects (P = 0.006). Conclusion. This is the first study reporting an association of hepatic SFRP5 expression with NAFLD in humans. © 2014, Fundacion Clinica Medica Sur. All rights reserved. Source

Leon-Mimila P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Leon-Mimila P.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran Incmnsz | Villamil-Ramirez H.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Villamil-Ramirez H.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran Incmnsz | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Several studies have identified multiple obesity-associated loci mainly in European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities such as Mexicans is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine 26 obesity-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in a sample of Mexican mestizos.Methods:9 SNPs in biological candidate genes showing replications (PPARG, ADRB3, ADRB2, LEPR, GNB3, UCP3, ADIPOQ, UCP2, and NR3C1), and 17 SNPs in or near genes associated with obesity in first, second and third wave GWAS (INSIG2, FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, FAIM2/BCDIN3, BDNF, SH2B1, GNPDA2, NEGR1, KCTD15, SEC16B/RASAL2, NPC1, SFRF10/ETV5, MAF, PRL, MTCH2, and PTER) were genotyped in 1,156 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos including 683 cases (441 obese class I/II and 242 obese class III) and 473 normal-weight controls. In a second stage we selected 12 of the SNPs showing nominal associations with obesity, to seek associations with quantitative obesity-related traits in 3 cohorts including 1,218 Mexican Mestizo children, 945 Mexican Mestizo adults, and 543 Indigenous Mexican adults.Results:After adjusting for age, sex and admixture, significant associations with obesity were found for 6 genes in the case-control study (ADIPOQ, FTO, TMEM18, INSIG2, FAIM2/BCDIN3 and BDNF). In addition, SH2B1 was associated only with class I/II obesity and MC4R only with class III obesity. SNPs located at or near FAIM2/BCDIN3, TMEM18, INSIG2, GNPDA2 and SEC16B/RASAL2 were significantly associated with BMI and/or WC in the combined analysis of Mexican-mestizo children and adults, and FTO locus was significantly associated with increased BMI in Indigenous Mexican populations.Conclusions:Our findings replicate the association of 8 obesity-related SNPs with obesity risk in Mexican adults, and confirm the role of some of these SNPs in BMI in Mexican adults and children. © 2013 León-Mimila et al. Source

Larrieta-Carrasco E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran Incmnsz | Acuna-Alonzo V.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Acuna-Alonzo V.,Laboratorio Of Genetica Molecular | Velazquez-Cruz R.,Laboratorio Of Genomica Del Metabolismo Oseo | And 16 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ≥40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7 %, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4 % in normal weight, 19.9 % in overweight and 24.5 % in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10 -6) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10-5). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source

Larrieta-Carrasco E.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran Incmnsz | Leon-Mimila P.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Villarreal-Molina T.,Laboratorio Of Genomica Of Enfermedades Cardiovasculares | Villamil-Ramirez H.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 12 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2013

Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are common in obese Hispanic adults and children. Recently, a PNPLA3 gene variant (I148M) was strongly associated with NAFLD and higher ALT levels in obese adults, including Hispanics. The aims of this study were to estimate the frequency of elevated ALT levels, and to address the influence of obesity and PNPLA3/I148M on ALT levels in a general population sample of Mexican school-aged children. Methods: A total of 1037 non-related Mexican children aged 6 to 12. years were genotyped for the I148M variant. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic parameters were collected from all participants. Results: Elevated ALT levels (>35U/L) were more frequent in obese (26.9%) and overweight (9.3%) than in normal weight children (2.2%). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in this population (OR=3.7, 95% CI 2.3-5.9; P=3.7×10-8), and children carrying the M148M genotype showed significantly lower HDL cholesterol levels and BMI z-core (P=0.036 and 0.015, respectively). On stratifying by BMI percentile, this genotype conferred a much greater risk of elevated ALT levels in normal weight (OR=19.9, 95% CI 2.5-157.7; P=0.005) than overweight and obese children (OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.3-8.9; P=0.014 and OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.7-5.5; P=1.4 x10-4, respectively). Conclusions: The I148M PNPLA3 variant is strongly associated with elevated ALT levels in normal weight and overweight/obese Mexican children. Thus, the M148M genotype may be considered as an important risk factor for liver damage in this population. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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