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Rostaing L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Massari P.,Hospital Privado Centro Medico Of Cordoba | Garcia V.D.,Hospital Dom Vicente Scherer | Mancilla-Urrea E.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2011

Background and objectives: Prolonged use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in kidney transplant recipients is associated with renal and nonrenal toxicity and an increase in cardiovascular risk factors. Belatacept-based regimens may provide a treatment option for patients who switch from CNI-based maintenance immunosuppression. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This is a randomized, open-label Phase II trial in renal transplant patients with stable graft function and receiving a CNI-based regimen. Patients who were ≥6 months but ≤36 months after transplantation were randomized to either switch to belatacept or continue CNI treatment. All patients received background maintenance immunosuppression. The primary end point was the change in calculated GFR (cGFR) from baseline to month 12. Results: Patients were randomized either to switch to belatacept (n = 84) or to remain on a CNI-based regimen (n = 89). At month 12, the mean (SD) change from baseline in cGFR was higher in the belatacept group versus the CNI group. Six patients in the belatacept group had acute rejection episodes, all within the first 6 months; all resolved with no allograft loss. By month 12, one patient in the CNI group died with a functioning graft, whereas no patients in the belatacept group had graft loss. The overall safety profile was similar between groups. Conclusions: The study identifies a potentially safe and feasible method for switching stable renal transplant patients from a cyclosporine- or tacrolimus-based regimen to a belatacept-based regimen, which may allow improved renal function in patients currently treated with CNIs. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology.


Vargas-Alarcon G.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio | Posadas-Romero C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio | Villarreal-Molina T.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen | Alvarez-Leon E.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Aim:The rs1412444 and rs2246833 polymorphisms within the LIPA gene were recently found to be significantly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in genome-wide association studies in Caucasian and Asian populations. The aim of the present study was to replicate this association in an independent population with a different genetic background.Methods:The rs1412444 and rs2246833 polymorphisms of the LIPA gene were genotyped by 5′ exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a sample of 899 Mexican patients with premature CAD, 270 individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis, and 677 healthy unrelated controls. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis.Results:Under recessive and additive models, the rs1412444 T and rs2246833 T alleles were associated with an increased risk of premature CAD when compared to controls adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and total cholesterol (OR = 1.53, PRec = 0.0013 and OR = 1.34, PAdd = 5 × 10-4 for rs1412444 and OR = 1.45, PRec = 0.0039 and OR = 1.28, PAdd = 0.0023 for rs2246833). The effect of the two polymorphisms on various metabolic cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed in premature CAD and controls (CAC score = 0). The T alleles in both polymorphisms after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and medication were associated with hypo-α-lipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus using recessive and additive models. The polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium and, based on SNP functional prediction software, only the rs1412444 polymorphism seemed to be functional.Conclusions:These results indicate that the rs1412444 and rs2246833 of the LIPA gene are shared susceptibility polymorphisms for CAD among different ethnicities. © 2013 Vargas-Alarcón et al.


Springall R.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio | Amezcua-Guerra L.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio | Gonzalez-Pacheco H.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio | Furuzawa-Carballeda J.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) may be triggered by acute infections. Systemic production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is induced during infection and regulates the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs), both important in plaque stability. This study evaluates the effect of IFN-γ on the MMPs/TIMP-1 ratio in cultured monocytes from 30 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), 30 with unstable angina (UA) or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 30 healthy blood donors. Supernatant concentrations of MMP-1, -2, -9, and TIMP-1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassays. Basal concentration of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 was similar between groups, while MMP-2 was higher in healthy individuals and MMP-9 in patients with UA/NSTEMI. Upon IFN-γ stimulation, MMP-9 secretion increased in all groups, while TIMP-1 decreased only in patients with CAD, which in turn result in a strikingly elevation in their mean MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. MMP-1/TIMP-1 and MMP-2/TIMP-1 ratios were <1.0 in basal conditions and after stimulation in all groups. Our results suggest that nonstimulated monocytes from patients with stable CAD show a similar behavior than those from healthy individuals. However, stimulation with IFN-γ induces an increase on the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio as high as that found in patients with ACS. Thus, it may bring biological plausibility to the association between acute infections and the development of ACS. © 2013 Springall et al.


The rs1412444 and rs2246833 polymorphisms within the LIPA gene were recently found to be significantly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in genome-wide association studies in Caucasian and Asian populations. The aim of the present study was to replicate this association in an independent population with a different genetic background.The rs1412444 and rs2246833 polymorphisms of the LIPA gene were genotyped by 5 exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays in a sample of 899 Mexican patients with premature CAD, 270 individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis, and 677 healthy unrelated controls. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis.Under recessive and additive models, the rs1412444 T and rs2246833 T alleles were associated with an increased risk of premature CAD when compared to controls adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and total cholesterol (OR = 1.53, PRec = 0.0013 and OR = 1.34, PAdd = 5 10(-4) for rs1412444 and OR = 1.45, PRec = 0.0039 and OR = 1.28, PAdd = 0.0023 for rs2246833). The effect of the two polymorphisms on various metabolic cardiovascular risk factors was analyzed in premature CAD and controls (CAC score = 0). The T alleles in both polymorphisms after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and medication were associated with hypo--lipoproteinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus using recessive and additive models. The polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium and, based on SNP functional prediction software, only the rs1412444 polymorphism seemed to be functional.These results indicate that the rs1412444 and rs2246833 of the LIPA gene are shared susceptibility polymorphisms for CAD among different ethnicities.

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