Namendys-Silva S.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico |
Namendys-Silva S.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencias Medicas Y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran |
Gonzalez-Herrera M.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico |
Garcia-Guillen F.J.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico |
Texcocano-Becerra J.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2013
The prognosis for patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and hospital outcomes of critically ill patients with HMs admitted to an oncological ICU. This is a prospective, observational cohort study. A total of 102 patients with HMs admitted to ICU from January 2008 to April 2011 were included. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with hospital mortality. During the study period, 3,776 patients with HM were admitted to the Department of Hematology of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología located in Mexico City, Mexico. After being evaluated by the intensivist, 102 (2.68 %) patients were admitted to the ICU. The ICU mortality rates for patients who had two or less organ system failures and for those with three or more organ system dysfunctions were 20 % (5/25) and 70.1 % (54/77), respectively (P < 0.0001). A multivariate analysis identified independent prognostic factors of inhospital death as neutropenia at the time of ICU admission (odds ratio (OR), 4.24; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.36-13.19, P = 0.012), the need for vasopressors (OR, 4.49; 95 % CI, 1.07-18.79, P = 0.040), need for invasive mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.49; 95 % CI, 1.07-18.79, P = 0.040), and serum creatinine >106 μmol/L (OR, 3.21; 95 % CI, 1.05-9.85, P = 0.041). The ICU and hospital mortality rates were 46.1 and 57.8 %, respectively. The independent prognostic factors of inhospital death were the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, the need for vasopressors, serum creatinine >106 μmol/L, and neutropenia at the time of ICU admission. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
PubMed | University of Houston, University of Colorado at Denver, Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico, Clinical and Translational Oncology Group and 8 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical lung cancer | Year: 2016
Lung cancer, the deadliest cancer worldwide, is of particular concern in Latin America. The rising incidence poses a myriad of challenges for the region, which struggles with limited resources to meet the health care needs of its low- and middle-income populations. In this environment, we are concerned that governments are relatively unaware of the pressing need to implement effective strategies for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of lung cancer. The region has also been slow in adopting molecularly-based therapies in the treatment of advanced disease: testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements are not routine, and access to targeted agents such as monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors is problematic. In this paper, we review the current situation in the management of lung cancer in Latin America, hoping that this initiative will help physicians, patient associations, industry, governments, and other stakeholders better face this epidemic in the near future.
PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico, Institute Cancerologia and Servicio de Patologia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cirugia y cirujanos | Year: 2016
Radical hysterectomy is the standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer. However, for women who wish to preserve fertility, radical trachelectomy is a safe and viable option.To present the first case of laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in the National Cancer Institute, and published in Mexico.Patient, 34years old, gravid1, caesarean1, stageIB1 cervical cancer, squamous, wishing to preserve fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes. Operation time was 330minutes, and the estimated blood loss was 100ml. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology reported a tumour of 15mm with infiltration of 7mm, surgical margins without injury, and pelvic nodes without tumour. After a 12month follow-up, the patient is having regular periods, but has not yet tried to get pregnant. No evidence of recurrence.Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy is a safe alternative in young patients who wish to preserve fertility with early stage cervical cancer.
PubMed | University of Houston, Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Medical College of Wisconsin and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human pathology | Year: 2015
Although metastases and high-mortality are frequent in high-grade endometrial sarcomas (HGSs), these findings are less commonly seen in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (LGESSs), even in cases with lymphovascular invasion (LVI). We hypothesized that the bulging plugs of tumor characteristic of LVI in LGESS are fundamentally different from LVI seen in HGS. We reviewed 70 uterine sarcomas: 42 HGSs (high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, undifferentiated uterine sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma) and 28 LGESSs. All cases had LVI documented on the histologic slides. Immunostains for CD31, ERG, and D2-40 were performed. LGESS harbored cohesive intravascular tumor foci with direct communication from the main tumor and attached to the vessel wall. The intravascular foci included tumor cells and small arteriole-type vessels and were surrounded by a thin fibrous band. Vascular markers confirmed the LVI and highlighted positively stained endothelial cells separating intravascular tumor foci from the blood itself. In contrast, intravascular tumor foci in HGS were composed of discohesive cells clusters, lacking the features described in LGESS. Only 8 (30.8%) patients with LGESS had recurrence/metastases (6 with lung metastasis); only 1 patient died of disease. Thirty (77%) patients with HGS had recurrence/metastases, 27 (69%) patients had lung metastases, and 22 (56.4%) patients died of disease. We propose that in most LGESSs, LVI represents vascular intrusion; manipulation or trauma is potentially responsible for tumor cell detachment into the circulation increasing the chances of recurrence/metastases. Classic LVI features were identified in HGS. This important distinction may allow for better management of patients and avoid unnecessary treatment in LGESS, reducing morbidity.
Roma A.A.,Cleveland Clinic |
Diaz De Vivar A.,Baylor College of Medicine |
Park K.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Alvarado-Cabrero I.,Mexican Oncology Hospital |
And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2015
A new 3-tier pattern-based system to classify endocervical adenocarcinoma was recently presented. In short, pattern A tumors were characterized by well-demarcated glands frequently forming clusters or groups with relative lobular architecture. Pattern B tumors demonstrated localized destructive invasion defined as desmoplastic stroma surrounding glands with irregular and/or ill-defined borders or incomplete glands and associated tumor cells (individual or small clusters) within the stroma. Tumors with pattern C showed diffusely infiltrative glands with associated extensive desmoplastic response. In total, 352 cases (all FIGO stages) from 12 institutions were identified. Mean patient age was 45 years (range, 20 to 83 y). Forty-nine (13.9%) cases demonstrated lymph nodes (LNs) with metastatic endocervical carcinoma. Using this new system, 73 patients (20.7%) were identified with pattern A tumors (all stage I); none had LN metastases and/or recurrences. Ninety patients (25.6%) were identified with pattern B tumors (all stage I); only 4 (4.4%) had LN metastases; 1 had vaginal recurrence. The 189 (53.7%) remaining patients had pattern C tumors; 45 (23.8%) of them had LN metastases. This new classification system demonstrated 20.7% of patients (pattern A) with negative LNs, and patients with pattern A tumors can be spared of lymphadenectomy. Patients with pattern B tumors rarely presented with metastatic LNs, and sentinel LN examination could potentially identify these patients. Aggressive treatment is justified in patients with pattern C tumors. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Herrera-Goepfert R.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico |
Vela-Chavez T.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico |
Carrillo-Garcia A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Lizano-Soberon M.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013
Background: Metaplastic carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast cancer, is part of the spectrum of basal-like, triple receptor-negative breast carcinomas. The present study examined 20 surgical specimens of metaplastic breast carcinomas, for the presence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is suspected to be a potential carcinogenic agent for breast carcinoma. Methods: Mastectomy specimens from patients harboring metaplastic breast carcinoma, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and who attended the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City, were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology accumulated during a 16-year period (1995-2008). Demographic and clinical information was obtained from patients' medical records. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and HPV type-specific amplification was performed by means of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative Real-time (RT) PCR was conducted in HPV positive cases. Statistically, the association of continuous or categorical variables with HPV status was tested by the Student t, the Chi square, or Fisher's exact tests, as appropriate. Results: High-risk HPV DNA was detected in eight (40%) of 20 metaplastic breast carcinomas: seven (87.5%) HPV-16 and one (12.5%) HPV-18. Mean age of patients with HPV-positive cases was 49 years (range 24-72 years), the same as for HPV-negative cases (range, 30-73 years). There were not striking differences between HPV + and HPV- metaplastic carcinomas regarding clinical findings. Nearly all cases were negative for estrogen, progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but positive for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).Conclusions: High-risk HPV has been strongly associated with conventional breast carcinomas, although the subtle mechanism of neoplastic transformation is poorly understood. In Mexican patients, the prevalence of HPV infection among metaplastic breast carcinomas is higher than in non-metaplastic ones, as so the HPV viral loads; notwithstanding, HPV viral loads show wide variation and remain even lower than cervical and other non-cervical carcinomas, making it difficult to assume that HPV could play a key role in breast carcinogenesis. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the meaning of the presence of high-risk HPVDNA in breast carcinomas. © 2013 Herrera-Goepfert et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Candelaria M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico |
Duenas-Gonzalez A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2015
Introduction: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by deregulation of apoptosis, dysplastic features in hematopoietic precursors, peripheral blood cytopenias and an increased risk for transformation to acute leukemia. Roughly 20% of MDS are therapy related (t-MDS), and this is considered an independent adverse prognostic factor.Areas covered: This review based on a comprehensive literature search provides an overview on the main features of t-MDS, including its epidemiology, risk factors, molecular pathogenesis, prognostic classifications and therapy.Expert opinion: Increasing evidence points out that the most important event in t-MDS is genetic alterations in hematopoietic stem precursor cells, however, ineffective hematopoiesis may also result from abnormalities in the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, novel views onto the processes of t-MDS are needed such as the osteohematology concept. On the other hand, the number of people living with and beyond cancer is increasing worldwide; thus, most emphasis should be placed on preventing secondary malignancies such as t-MDS. From this review, it becomes clear that we are in urgent need not only to deepen our understanding of the leukemogenesis mechanisms induced by exposure to chemotherapy and radiation but also to translate this knowledge into clinical strategies aimed at risk reduction. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.
PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016
15502 Background: Previous studies with cetuximab in SCCHN demonstrate to be clinically beneficial. In the present study we wished to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a chemotherapeutic scheme using gemcitabine, radiotherapy and cetuximab for SCCHN. Preliminary report of 20 of 40 enrolled patients into a phase II clinical trial.inclusion criteria; histological confirmation of epidermoid carcinoma, ages 18 to 70, K > 70%, normal renal, hepatic and haematologic functions, without previous treatment, surgically inoperable disease, or patients with operable disease that did not consent to surgery. All patients signed an informed consent form. Radiotherapy: 200 cGy/d/5/w until 70Gy were completed. Cetuximab: an initial dose of 400 mg/m20 patients were enrolled (16m/4f) from november of 2004 to november of 2005, (5 oral cavity, 5 oropharynx, 8 larynx, 1 hypopharynx and 1 paranasal sinus). Mean age 56 yrs (33-75). Tumor staging: 7/III, 8/IVa and 5/IVb. One female was excluded, 19 completed the study and were evaluated. GR 17/19 (89.5%), CR 13/17 (76.5%) and PR 4/17 (23.5%). 2/19 NR (10.5%). CR of the 1ary tumor 15/19 patients (78.9%); CR 6/11 patients with lymphatic disease at diagnosis (54.5%), PR 3/19 (27.3%).mucositis g/III-IV 8/19 patients; rash g/III 4 patients. 2/19 did not complete treatment with chemotherapy due to mucositis but did with radiotherapy. No relationship was found between clinical response and the severity of the rash. One patient developed leukopenia g/III. 4 patients developed disphagia g/II, one has not resolved after 8 month follow up. Xerostomia g/II was 7/19 patients. Dermatological toxicity resolved by the end of the treatment. Mean follow up: 6 months, 1 patient which did not respond died and 1 patient with a PR recurred.The scheme is safe and effective with tolerable toxicity. In our previously reported experience, the addition of cetuximab to gemcitabine and radiotherapy does not increment local toxicity, statistical validation of these findings require the completion of the 40 patient study. No significant financial relationships to disclose.
PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico
Type: | Journal: International journal of surgery (London, England) | Year: 2016
Retroperitoneal sarcomas are a rare group of malignant soft tissue tumors with a generally poor prognosis. The aim of the study was to define the demographic characteristics and prognostic factors for patients with retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) in a Tertiary Referral Center at Mexico.A retrospective study of patients with RPS treated from January 2005 to December 2012at the National Cancer Institute at Mexico. Patient, tumor and treatment variables were analyzed including use of adjuvant therapy and survival status. Survival and local recurrence curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Ninety-five patients with a mean age of 47 years with retroperitoneal sarcoma were included. Median follow-up was 25 months (range 1-108 months). The average tumor size was 23.7cm. Histology, 58 (61.1%) were liposarcoma, 14 (14.7%), leiomyosarcomas and 23 (24.2%) were from other histologies. In 64 (67.4%) patients were high-grade malignancies. The median survival was 51 months for patients with complete resection, 25.1 months for those with incomplete resection, and 4.4 months for those with unresectable tumors. Complete resection (p=0.0001), and liposarcoma (p=0.03) were prognostic factors for overall survival.In this study of patients with retroperitoneal, complete resection and liposarcoma histology are prognostic factors related to the disease-free and overall survival. Patients approached with curative intent should undergo aggressive attempts at complete surgical resection.
PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Mexico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Expert opinion on drug safety | Year: 2015
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by deregulation of apoptosis, dysplastic features in hematopoietic precursors, peripheral blood cytopenias and an increased risk for transformation to acute leukemia. Roughly 20% of MDS are therapy related (t-MDS), and this is considered an independent adverse prognostic factor.This review based on a comprehensive literature search provides an overview on the main features of t-MDS, including its epidemiology, risk factors, molecular pathogenesis, prognostic classifications and therapy.Increasing evidence points out that the most important event in t-MDS is genetic alterations in hematopoietic stem precursor cells, however, ineffective hematopoiesis may also result from abnormalities in the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, novel views onto the processes of t-MDS are needed such as the osteohematology concept. On the other hand, the number of people living with and beyond cancer is increasing worldwide; thus, most emphasis should be placed on preventing secondary malignancies such as t-MDS. From this review, it becomes clear that we are in urgent need not only to deepen our understanding of the leukemogenesis mechanisms induced by exposure to chemotherapy and radiation but also to translate this knowledge into clinical strategies aimed at risk reduction.