Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan

Mexico City, Mexico

Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan

Mexico City, Mexico
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Sanchez-Perez Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Chirino Y.I.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Osornio-Vargas T.R.,University of Alberta | Morales-Barcenas R.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 4 more authors.
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2014

The exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) from urban zones is considered to be a risk factor in the development of cancer. The aim of this work was to determine if PM10 exposure induces factors related to the acquisition of a neoplastic phenotype, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, changes in the subcellular localization of p21CIP1/WAF1, an increase in β-galactosidase activity and changes in cell cycle. To test our hypothesis, PM10 from an industrial zone (IZ) and a commercial zone (CZ) were collected, and human adenocarcinoma lung cell cultures (A549) were exposed to a sublethal PM10 concentration (10μg/cm2) for 24h and 48h. The results showed that PM10 exposure induced an increase in F-actin stress fibers and caused the cytoplasmic stabilization of p21CIP1/WAF1 via phosphorylation at Thr145 and Ser146 and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 on Thr202. Changes in the cell cycle or apoptosis were not observed, but an increase in β-galactosidase activity was detected. The PM10 from CZ caused more dramatic effects in lung cells. We conclude that PM10 exposure induced cytoplasmic p21CIP1/WAF1 retention, ERK1/2 activation, cytoskeleton remodeling and the acquisition of a senescence-like phenotype in lung cells. These alterations could have mechanistic implications regarding the carcinogenic potential of PM10. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Nunez-Valencia C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Alvarado S.,Sub direccion de Medicina Interna | Flores-Estrada D.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 2 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2012

Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is the first cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a fundamental outcome for evaluating treatment results. Our objective was to validate the Mexican-Spanish versions of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life QLQ-LC13 disease-specific questionnaire module in Mexican patients with LC; and to explore the possible prognostic role of HRQL data. Methods: Translation procedures followed EORTC guidelines. Both instruments were completed by patients with LC. Tests for reliability and validity were performed. A subset of patients was administered HRQL evaluations before and after chemotherapy. HRQL was associated with prognosis in chemotherapy-naïve patients. The protocol was approved by the Institute's Ethics Committee. Results: One hundred fifty three patients (mean age, 60.3 years; 84 females and 69 males) completed both questionnaires. Compliance rates were high, and the questionnaires were well accepted. Nine of 10 multi-item scales of both questionnaires presented Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.7. Multi-trait scaling analysis demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Patients with better Karnofsky or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status reported better functional HRQL scores. Different scales in the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-LC13 questionnaires were accurately related with clinical characteristics. Functional as well as disease-symptom scales improved after chemotherapy, but treatment side-effects scales worsened in test-retest analysis. Better role functioning and absence of thoracic pain scales were associated with longer overall survival (OS) (p= 0.009 and p= 0.035, respectively). Conclusion: The Mexican-Spanish versions of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-LC13 questionnaires are reliable and valid for HRQL measurement in Mexican patients with LC and can be used in clinical trials. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Garon E.B.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ciuleanu T.-E.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Prabhash K.,Tata Memorial Center | And 20 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Ramucirumab is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets the extracellular domain of VEGFR-2. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of treatment with docetaxel plus ramucirumab or placebo as second-line treatment for patients with stage IV non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) after platinum-based therapy. Methods In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial (REVEL), we enrolled patients with squamous or non-squamous NSCLC who had progressed during or after a first-line platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) with a centralised, interactive voice-response system (stratified by sex, region, performance status, and previous maintenance therapy [yes vs no]) to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m 2 and either ramucirumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo on day 1 of a 21 day cycle until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was overall survival in all patients allocated to treatment. We assessed adverse events according to treatment received. This study is registered with, number NCT01168973. Findings Between Dec 3, 2010, and Jan 24, 2013, we screened 1825 patients, of whom 1253 patients were randomly allocated to treatment. Median overall survival was 10·5 months (IQR 5·1-21·2) for 628 patients allocated ramucirumab plus docetaxel and 9·1 months (4·2-18·0) for 625 patients who received placebo plus docetaxel (hazard ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·75-0·98; p=0·023). Median progression-free survival was 4·5 months (IQR 2·3-8·3) for the ramucirumab group compared with 3·0 months (1·4-6·9) for the control group (0·76, 0·68-0·86; p<0·0001). We noted treatment-emergent adverse events in 613 (98%) of 627 patients in the ramucirumab safety population and 594 (95%) of 618 patients in the control safety population. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events were neutropenia (306 patients [49%] in the ramucirumab group vs 246 [40%] in the control group), febrile neutropenia (100 [16%] vs 62 [10%]), fatigue (88 [14%] vs 65 [10%]), leucopenia (86 [14%] vs 77 [12%]), and hypertension (35 [6%] vs 13 [2%]). The numbers of deaths from adverse events (31 [5%] vs 35 [6%]) and grade 3 or worse pulmonary haemorrhage (eight [1%] vs eight [1%]) did not differ between groups. Toxicities were manageable with appropriate dose reductions and supportive care. Interpretation Ramucirumab plus docetaxel improves survival as second-line treatment of patients with stage IV NSCLC. Funding Eli Lilly. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Heras-Sandoval D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Heras-Sandoval D.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Pedraza-Chaverri J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Perez-Rojas J.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2016

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) relevant for brain function. It has largely been explored as a potential candidate to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical evidence favors a role for DHA in the improvement of cognition in very early stages of the AD. In response to stress or damage, DHA generates oxygenated derivatives called docosanoids that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). In conjunction with activated retinoid X receptors (RXR), PPARγ modulates inflammation, cell survival, and lipid metabolism. As an early event in AD, inflammation is associated with an excess of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) that contributes to neural insult. Glial cells are recognized to be actively involved during AD, and their dysfunction is associated with the early appearance of this pathology. These cells give support to neurons, remove amyloid β peptides from the brain, and modulate inflammation. Since DHA can modulate glial cell activity, the present work reviews the evidence about this modulation as well as the effect of docosanoids on neuroinflammation and in some AD models. The evidence supports PPARγ as a preferred target for gene modulation. The effective use of DHA and/or its derivatives in a subgroup of people at risk of developing AD is discussed. © 2016 Heras-Sandoval et al.

Zinser-Sierra J.W.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Rodriguez-Ramirez S.,Hospital Of Oncologia Cmnsxxi | Villalobos-Valencia R.,Umae Hospital Of Oncologia | Ramirez-Marquez M.,Hospital Cima Chihuahua
Drugs in R and D | Year: 2011

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and although associated mortality rates in South American countries are generally among the lowest in the world, they are on the rise. The prognosis of patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer has improved markedly over the last 12 years, increasing from 5 months with best supportive care to almost 2 years with combination chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. New prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been identified to guide therapy. Prognostic markers indicate patient survival independent of therapy and include disease stage, mutational status, and carcinoembryonic antigen. More recently, predictive markers of treatment outcomes have been identified. The most studied are mutations of the KRAS and BRAF genes, which are associated with resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy. Tumor blood vessels have a number of structural and functional abnormalities that result in increased tumor vascularity and growth driven by angiogenesis. The anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, which binds to and neutralizes VEGF-A, has become a central part of the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil (5-FU)leucovorin, irinotecan plus bolus 5-FUleucovorin, or irinotecan plus infusional 5-FUleucovorin significantly improves the overall survival of patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. In addition, a significant increase in overall survival is seen when bevacizumab is added to oxaliplatin plus infusional 5-FUleucovorin (FOLFOX) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who progressed on a non-bevacizumab-containing regimen. Although the majority of studies were performed prior to the identification of KRAS and BRAF as predictive biomarkers, subsequent analysis has shown the benefits of bevacizumab occur independently of the mutational status of these genes. In patients who have progressed on a bevacizumab-containing regimen, continuation of bevacizumab is significantly associated with an improved survival based on observational cohort studies. Surgical resection is recommended in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer where complete removal of tumors can be achieved. Perioperative chemotherapy using FOLFOX for 3 months before and 3 months after surgery is associated with a 9% improvement in 3-year survival. The use of chemotherapy in patients initially deemed unresectable has produced resection rates approaching 40%, and the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in this setting is feasible, safe, and effective. In a study of 219 patients, the addition of bevacizumab to FOLFOX was associated with a significant increase in major or complete pathologic response compared with FOLFOX alone. Improvements in patient survival have changed the treatment paradigm for metastatic colorectal cancer. Newer approaches view treatment not as distinct lines of therapy but as a continuum that includes personalized treatment plans offering maintenance therapy and even drug holidays between aggressive treatment periods. This approach achieves similar efficacy outcomes with reduced toxicity, and investigation of the role of bevacizumab as maintenance therapy is ongoing. © 2011 Escudier & Gore, publisher and licensee Adis Data Information BV.

Gamboa-Vignolle C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Ferrari-Carballo T.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Mohar A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2012

Background and purpose: This randomised phase II study evaluated the use of Temozolomide (TMZ) concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) for 2 weeks without adjuvant TMZ vs. WBI alone in patients with Brain metastases (BM) from solid tumours. Materials and methods: Fifty-five patients were randomised into the following groups: 28 patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with once-daily 200 mg TMZ on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, and 300 mg TMZ on Tuesdays and Thursdays (TMZ plus WBI arm). Twenty-seven patients received the same schedule of WBI alone (control arm). Results: The objective response (OR) was 78.6% for the TMZ plus WBI arm, (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.4-93.8%) and 48.1% (29.3-66.9%) for the control arm (p = 0.019). Median Progression-free survival (PFS) of BM was 11.8 months (CI, 4.7-8.9 months) and 5.6 months (4.9-6.2 months) for the TMZ plus WBI and control arms, respectively, (Hazard ratio [HR], 0.24; CI, 0.09-0.65; p = 0.005). Overall survival (OS) of 8.0 Months for the TMZ plus WBI arm and 8.1 months for the control arm, were not significantly different. Conclusion: A daily fixed dose of TMZ during WBI without adjuvant TMZ was well tolerated and significantly improved local control of BM compared with WBI alone. These findings require confirmation in a phase III trial ( number, NCT01015534). © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Arrieta O.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Angulo L.P.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Nunez-Valencia C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 6 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common in patients with lung cancer and may produce an impact on both health-related quality of life (HRQL) and survival. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of depression and anxiety on HRQL, treatment adherence, and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: This is a prospective study of patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Depression and anxiety were measured using the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and the HRQL with the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-LC13 questionnaires. Instruments were applied before treatment and repeated at 3 and 6 months. Lack of treatment adherence was considered as patients who stopped going to their consultation appointments. Results: A total of 82 patients were included. At the initial evaluation, depression and anxiety were found in 32.9 and 34.1 % of patients, respectively. Depression was associated with feminine gender (p = 0.034) and poor performance status (p = 0.048). Depression and anxiety showed an association with HRQL. Patients with depression showed median overall survival of 6.8 months, whereas that for nondepressed patients was 14 months (hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI), 1.03-3.7; p = 0.042). The 58 % of patients with depression had poor treatment adherence versus 42 % of patients without depression (p = 0.004). Conclusions: Depression and anxiety were present in one-third of patients with recently diagnosed NSCLC. Depression and anxiety were associated with decreased HRQL scales, and depression was independently associated with treatment adherence and with poor prognosis. © 2012 Society of Surgical Oncology.

Macedo-Perez E.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Morales-Oyarvide V.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Mendoza-Garcia V.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Dorantes-Gallareta Y.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 2 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Purpose: Paclitaxel and docetaxel are two taxanes approved for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is limited evidence regarding the efficacy of docetaxel in NSCLC previously treated with a paclitaxel-platinum doublet (PP). The aim of our study was to evaluate the response to docetaxel in NSCLC patients with prior PP treatment. Methods: Patients with stage IV NSCLC treated with PP that presented disease progression and received docetaxel as second-line treatment were included. Demographics, clinical characteristics, EGFR mutation status, objective response (OR), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and PFS without chemotherapy after first line with PP were analyzed. Results: Sixty-three patients were evaluated. Median age was 58 years, 54 % of patients were women, 53 % were never-smokers, and 39 % had EGFR mutations. OR and median PFS for PP were 36.5 % and 6.7 months, respectively. OR and median PFS for docetaxel were 19 % and 3.8 months, respectively. Patients with EGFR mutations had better response to docetaxel compared with wild-type patients (26 vs. 17 %, p = 0.028). However, only long PFS (>6 months) to first-line PP was independently associated with a higher OR [RR 6.3, 95 % CI (1.03-38.4), p = 0.046], and longer PFS [0.49 (0.25-0.9)] and OS [0.2 (0.06-0.7), p = 0.008] to second-line docetaxel compared with patients with short PFS (≤6 months) to PP. Conclusions: Previous use of PP does not preclude a favorable response to docetaxel in NSCLC. Long PFS with PP may help select NSCLC patients who benefit from second-line docetaxel. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Blake M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | De La Mata-Moya M.D.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Corona F.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 4 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology | Year: 2014

Background Nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide donor agent, reduces the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and could be a normalizer of the tumor microenvironment. Both factors are associated with chemo-radio-resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the safety profile and efficacy of nitroglycerin administration with chemo-radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods This is a phase II trial of locally advanced NSCLC patients treated with cisplatin and vinorelbine plus concurrent nitroglycerin with radiotherapy. A 25-mg NTG patch was administered to the patients for 5 days (1 day before and 4 days after chemotherapy induction and consolidation) and all day during chemo-radiotherapy. VEGF plasmatic level was determined before and after two cycles of chemotherapy. Results Thirty-five patients were enrolled in this trial. Sixty-three percent of patients achieved an overall response after induction of chemotherapy, and 75% achieved an overall response after chemo-radiotherapy. The median progression-free survival was 13.5 months (95% CI, 8.8-18.2), and the median overall survival was 26.9 months (95% CI, 15.3-38.5). Reduction of VEGF level was associated with better OS. The toxicity profile related to nitroglycerin included headache (20%) and hypotension (2.9%). Conclusions The addition of nitroglycerin to induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced NSCLC has an acceptable toxicity profile and supports the possibility to add nitroglycerin to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A randomized trial is warranted to confirm these findings. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Campos-Parra A.D.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Aviles A.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Contreras-Reyes S.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Rojas-Marin C.E.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 3 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2014

Since the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) reported a new lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) classification, several groups have validated its association with prognosis in early stage disease. To our knowledge, there are no studies in advanced disease. We reviewed 313 patients with invasive lung ADC who were re-classified using the new IASLC/ATS/ERS criteria. Patients received platinum-based chemotherapy. Clinical characteristics, EGFR mutations, response and progression-free survival (PFS) after chemotherapy and overall survival were analysed. ADCs were classified as lepidic 7.4%, acinar 44.7%, papillary 10.1%, micropapillary 3.5% and solid 34.2%. When patterns were lumped into groups, response rates and PFS to platinum-based chemotherapy were better in high-grade ADC (micropapillary, papillary and solid-predominant) versus intermediate-grade ADC (lepidic and acinar-predominant) (36.9% versus 25.4% p=0.034 and 6.4 versus 5.5 months p=0.009, respectively). Overall survival was better in high-grade ADC (25 versus 16.8; p=0.023). Factors associated with better overall survival were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (0-1), EGFR mutations and highgrade ADC. Prognostic differences found with the new classification in early disease may not apply to patients with advanced disease. Unlike in early stages, patients with high-grade ADC have longer overall survival compared with intermediate-grade ADC, probably due to a better response to chemotherapy. Copyright © ERS 2014.

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