Heranndez-Avila M.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica |
Gutierrez Dr. J.P.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica |
Reynoso-Noveron N.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2013
Objective. To estimate the magnitude of diabetes in Mexico, as well as discuss alternative policies to face it appropriately. Materials and methods. Descriptive analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, using reported information on previous diagnosis of diabetes from adults and adolescents. Results. From all adults 20 years and older in Mexico, 9.17% has been diagnosed with diabetes, presenting an important geographical heterogeneity, ranging from 5.6% in the southern state of Chiapas, to 12.3% in Mexico City. Of all people with diabetes, 46.95% also have been diagnosed with hypertension, 4.47% has had a stroke, and 54.46%, reported family background of diabetes. Regarding adolescents, 0.68% has been already diagnosed with diabetes. Conclusions. The burden of diabetes in Mexico and the fact that is a preventable condition, calls to strengthen the health sector strategies to face it. The negative effect it has on the quality of life makes diabetes a priority for the health sector.
Munoz N.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia |
Bravo L.E.,Registro Poblacional de Cancer de Cali
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2014
Objective: To describe the incidence, mortality, time trends and prognostic factors for cervical cancer in Cali, Colombia, and to review the molecular epidemiological evidence showing that HPV is the major and necessary cause of cervical cancer and the implications of this discovery for primary and secondary prevention. Materials and methods: Incidence rates of cervical cancer during a 45-year period (1962-2007) were estimated based on the population-based cancer registry of Cali and the mortality statistics from the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali. Prognostic factors were estimated based on relative survival. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence linking HPV to cervical cancer was focused on the studies carried out in Cali and in other countries. Results: Incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) declined from 120.4 per 100 000 in 1962-1966 to 25.7 in 2003-2007 while those of adenocarcinoma increased from 4.2 to 5.8. Mortality rates for cervical cancer declined from 18.5 in 1984-1988 to 7.0 per 100 000 in 2009-2011. Survival was lower in women over 65 years of age and in clinical stages 3-4. Review of the molecular epidemiological evidence showed that certain types of HPV are the central and necessary cause of cervical cancer. Conclusions: A decline in the incidence and mortality of SCC and an increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma during a 45-year period was documented in Cali, Colombia.
Heras-Sandoval D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Perez-Rojas J.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia |
Hernandez-Damian J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Pedraza-Chaverri J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2014
Disruption of autophagy plays an import role in neurodegenerative disorders, where deficient elimination of abnormal and toxic protein aggregates promotes cellular stress, failure and death. Therefore, induction of autophagy has been proposed as a reasonable strategy to help neurons clear abnormal protein aggregates and survive. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of the autophagic process and is regulated by starvation, growth factors, and cellular stressors. Upstream of mTOR the survival PI3K/AKT pathway modulates mTOR activity that is also altered in neurodegenerative diseases of Alzheimer and Parkinson. Nevertheless, the interplay between the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the autophagic process is complex and a more detailed examination of tissue from patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and of animal and cellular models is needed. In the present work we review the recent findings on the role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the modulation of the autophagic process in neuronal protection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Cervantes-Madrid D.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia |
Duenas-Gonzalez A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Oncology Reports | Year: 2015
There is a strong rationale for targeting the metabolic alterations of cancer cells. The most studied of these are the higher rates of glycolysis, glutaminolysis and de novo synthesis of fatty acids (FAs). Despite the availability of pharmacological inhibitors of these pathways, no preclinical studies targeting them simultaneously have been performed. In the present study it was determined whether three key enzymes for glycolysis, glutaminolysis and de novo synthesis of FAs, hexokinase-2, glutaminase and fatty acid synthase, respectively, were overexpressed as compared to primary fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that at clinically relevant concentrations lonidamine, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and orlistat, known inhibitors of the mentioned enzymes, exerted a cell viability inhibitory effect. Genetic downregulation of the three enzymes also reduced cell viability. The three drugs were highly synergistic when administered as a triple combination. Of note, the cytotoxicity of the triple combination was low in primary fibroblasts and was well tolerated when administered into healthy BALB/c mice. The results suggest the feasibility and potential clinical utility of the triple metabolic targeting which merits to be further studied by using either repositioned old drugs or newer, more selective inhibitors.
Maldonado V.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia |
Melendez-Zajgla J.,Institute of Genomic Medicine INMEGEN
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2011
Bcl-3 is an established oncogene in hematologic malignancies, such as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that it also participates in progression of diverse solid tumors. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of Bcl3 role in solid tumors progression, including some new insights in its possible molecular mechanisms of action. © 2011 Maldonado and Melendez-Zajgla; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Verastegui E.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia |
Mohar A.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
European Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2010
Mexico, like many other middle-income countries, is experiencing a demographic and epidemiological transition resulting in an older population suffering from chronic diseases. At the present time, cancer is the second cause of death in the country. Until recently, cervical carcinoma was the most frequent type of cancer in the country, however, the incidence of breast, prostate and colon cancers is growing. The demand for health care and health expenditure represented by cancer treatment challenges the limited resources the country has, particularly as patients seek treatment in advanced stages of the disease. Interestingly enough, these types of cancers could be detected in the early stages with rather simple screening procedures. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Mexican health system, and the impact of its fragmentation on access to medicines. Focusing on colorectal cancer (CRC), we describe its epidemiology, screening procedures and the inequities in health care access for these patients.
Granados-Garcia M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2016
Oropharyngeal cancer incidence has recently increased, thereby attracting public attention. Akin to other malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, it has been attributed to the carcinogenic effects of tobacco and alcohol use. However, recent evidence shows that a substantial increase in the disease is attributable to the effects of human papillomavirus (HPV). Marked progress has been made in relation to the knowledge of molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis and progression of these cancers. This has led to the development of new and promising therapies of a more specific and less toxic nature that have prolonged life and improved its quality. However, these therapies have failed to significantly increase the proportion of patients who are cured. To decrease the mortality associated with these neoplasms, it is necessary to adopt public health measures aimed at prevention and early diagnosis.
Candelaria M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2016
Lymphoproliferative disorders have increased in last decades. Immunohistochemistry analysis is required to categorize them in different clinical entities, as has been stablished by WHO. Advances in imaging have set the PET-CT as a standard staging procedure in most cases. Knowledge of the biology of these malignancies has allowed therapeutic advances with different approaches, including development of monoclonal antibodies, conjugated antibodies, immunomodulatory agents, as well as inhibition of specific pathways. Although new drugs are promising, the cost-benefit impact requires to be evaluated in pharmacoeconomic clinical trials.
Sanz-Chavez T.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
Revista médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social | Year: 2013
in postmenopausal women, the excess of fat has been associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension in patients with endometrial cancer. we collected demographic, clinical, laboratory and histopathological information from the electronic records of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer in the period from January 2009 to July 2011. Subsequently descriptive analysis of the information was done. a total of 274 records. The average age of patients was 54 years. The 50.4 % were postmenopausal. At the time of diagnosis, 112 cases (48.6 %) were in clinical stage I. Of all patients, 104 (37.9 %) had diabetes mellitus, 122 (44.5 %) hypertension, 194 (72.6 %) were overweight or obese, and 24 cases were registered with the metabolic syndrome. in regards to this diagnosis the results show a higher incidence of overweight and obesity compared with other countries. It is necessary to conduct further studies to assess the relationship of excess fat as a risk factor for endometrial cancer.
Granados-Garcia M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
Cirugia y cirujanos | Year: 2010
Thyroid cancer presents as nodules. Thyroid nodules are frequent, but only 5-30% are malignant. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is useful for initial evaluation; nevertheless, malignancy is uncertain when follicular neoplasm is reported. Some factors can be associated with malignancy. Therefore, we analyzed our follicular neoplasms in order to identify those factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy. We analyzed the clinical files of consecutive patients with cytological diagnoses of follicular neoplasm. From 1,005 cases of thyroid nodules, 121 were follicular neoplasms according to cytology. Of these, 75 were surgically treated. Definitive report showed 45 benign (60%) and 30 malignant (40%) cases. Benign cases included 29 goiters, 11 follicular adenomas, and 5 cases of thyroiditis. Malignant cases were comprised of 12 papillary carcinomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 3 papillary carcinomas-follicular variant, 1 lymphoma, 1 teratoma, 5 medullary carcinomas, 2 insular carcinomas, 1 anaplastic carcinoma and 1 metastatic breast carcinoma. Tumor size of benign lesions was 3.43 ± 2.04 cm, and 4.67 ± 2.78 (p = 0.049) for malignant lesions. Age was 46.95 ± 15.39 years for benign lesions and 48.67 ± 17.28 for malignant lesions (p = 0.66). Fifty percent of males showed malignancy vs. 37.7% of females (p < 0.005). Our results suggest that size and gender, but not age, are associated with cytological pattern. Ultrasonographic characteristics may be useful discriminating patients with a higher risk of malignancy. FNAB is a useful tool for initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, but clinical evaluation can enhance predictive value.