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Morales-Oyarvide V.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia | Mino-Kenudson M.,Harvard University
Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose of Review: The purpose of review is to discuss the most recent research findings on lung adenocarcinomas with solid and micropapillary patterns. Recent Findings: Multiple recent studies have confirmed that both patterns are associated with adverse clinicopathologic features such as lymphovascular and pleural invasion, as well as lymph node metastasis, and consequently with poor disease-free survival, overall survival, or both. Radiologic characteristics such as high F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake, a solid nodule, and size ≥2cm have been found to be useful to detect solid and micropapillary patterns. A seminal study has shown that the presence of a micropapillary component ( ≥5%) is a risk factor for early locoregional recurrence in patients undergoing limited resection for small (<2cm) adenocarcinomas, but not for patients undergoing lobectomy. Several studies have demonstrated that micropapillary-predominant tumors are associated with EGFR mutations, whereas solid-predominant tumors are negatively associated with mutations of this gene and positively associated with KRAS mutations, indicative of the lack of response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The possible role of molecular events such as loss of BRG1/BRM and activation of c-Met has been identified in solid pattern and micropapillary pattern, respectively. Summary: Micropapillary and solid patterns are markers for early recurrence and poor survival in lung adenocarcinomas. In order to overcome the unfavorable outcomes, the preoperative detection of these patterns, development of targeted therapy for KRAS mutants, and discovery of biomarkers that play a significant role in development or progression or both of these patterns are warranted to help in treating lung adenocarcinoma patients with micropapillary or solid patterns or both effectively. Copyright © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Heras-Sandoval D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Perez-Rojas J.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia | Hernandez-Damian J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Pedraza-Chaverri J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2014

Disruption of autophagy plays an import role in neurodegenerative disorders, where deficient elimination of abnormal and toxic protein aggregates promotes cellular stress, failure and death. Therefore, induction of autophagy has been proposed as a reasonable strategy to help neurons clear abnormal protein aggregates and survive. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of the autophagic process and is regulated by starvation, growth factors, and cellular stressors. Upstream of mTOR the survival PI3K/AKT pathway modulates mTOR activity that is also altered in neurodegenerative diseases of Alzheimer and Parkinson. Nevertheless, the interplay between the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the autophagic process is complex and a more detailed examination of tissue from patients suffering neurodegenerative diseases and of animal and cellular models is needed. In the present work we review the recent findings on the role of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in the modulation of the autophagic process in neuronal protection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Maldonado V.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia | Melendez-Zajgla J.,Institute of Genomic Medicine INMEGEN
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2011

Bcl-3 is an established oncogene in hematologic malignancies, such as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that it also participates in progression of diverse solid tumors. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of Bcl3 role in solid tumors progression, including some new insights in its possible molecular mechanisms of action. © 2011 Maldonado and Melendez-Zajgla; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Granados-Garcia M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2016

Oropharyngeal cancer incidence has recently increased, thereby attracting public attention. Akin to other malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, it has been attributed to the carcinogenic effects of tobacco and alcohol use. However, recent evidence shows that a substantial increase in the disease is attributable to the effects of human papillomavirus (HPV). Marked progress has been made in relation to the knowledge of molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis and progression of these cancers. This has led to the development of new and promising therapies of a more specific and less toxic nature that have prolonged life and improved its quality. However, these therapies have failed to significantly increase the proportion of patients who are cured. To decrease the mortality associated with these neoplasms, it is necessary to adopt public health measures aimed at prevention and early diagnosis.

Candelaria M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2016

Lymphoproliferative disorders have increased in last decades. Immunohistochemistry analysis is required to categorize them in different clinical entities, as has been stablished by WHO. Advances in imaging have set the PET-CT as a standard staging procedure in most cases. Knowledge of the biology of these malignancies has allowed therapeutic advances with different approaches, including development of monoclonal antibodies, conjugated antibodies, immunomodulatory agents, as well as inhibition of specific pathways. Although new drugs are promising, the cost-benefit impact requires to be evaluated in pharmacoeconomic clinical trials.

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