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Hernandez-Triana L.M.,University of Guelph | Prosser S.W.,University of Guelph | Rodriguez-Perez M.A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Chaverri L.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2014

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of various primers for the purpose of DNA barcoding old, pinned museum specimens of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). We analysed 271 pinned specimens representing two genera and at least 36 species. Due to the age of our material, we targeted overlapping DNA fragments ranging in size from 94 to 407 bp. We were able to recover valid sequences from 215 specimens, of which 18% had 500- to 658-bp barcodes, 36% had 201- to 499-bp barcodes and 46% had 65- to 200-bp barcodes. Our study demonstrates the importance of choosing suitable primers when dealing with older specimens and shows that even very short sequences can be diagnostically informative provided that an appropriate gene region is used. Our study also highlights the lack of knowledge surrounding blackfly taxonomy, and we briefly discuss the need for further phylogenetic studies in this socioeconomically important family of insects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A world catalog of extant and fossil Chaoboridae provides full type information, distribution of each species, references to keys, references to latest descriptions of each species, and summaries of bionomic information. There are 51 extant species in six genera and 41 fossil species (2 unplaced) in 19 genera, two of which are extant. Chaoborus lanei (Belkin, Heinemann & Page) is a new synonym of C. braziliensis (Theobald) and C. annulatus Cook is a new synonym of C. festivus Dyar & Shannon. © 2014 Magnolia Press. Source

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The pupae of each of the families of the Culicomorpha are described and, for the first time, their structures homologized. A glossary provides a standard set of terms to be applied to each structure, including a common chaetotaxy. A cladistic analysis incorporates information from each life stage, including a number of new features discovered from the pupal stage, to provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis, as well as indicating autapomorphies for each family. Analysis included states for one egg, 21 larval, 33 pupal, and 37 adult characters. The Chironomidae is the sister group of all remaining Culicomorpha, the Ceratopogonidae is the sister group of Thaumaleidae + Simuliidae and these three are newly recognized as members of the re-defined superfamily Simulioidea. The superfamily Culicoidea are the sister group of the Simulioidea and include, as previous work has already demonstrated, the Dixidae as the sister group of Corethrellidae + Chaoboridae + Culicidae. Corethrellidae is the sister group of Chaoboridae + Culicidae. The superfamily Chironomoidea now includes only Chironomidae. Analysis of the fossil record shows that the Chironomidae (and the Culicomorpha) originated in the Triassic and both Simulioidea and Culicoidea were present by 176 million years ago in the Jurassic. Phylogenetic patterns are used to interpret bionomic features such as differences in the nature of blood-feeding by adult females, daytime or nighttime feeding by adult females, and occurrence of immature stages in aquatic habitats. Chironomidae do not feed on blood as adults and have likely diversified by invading virtually all aquatic habitats as larvae. Its sister group is more than twice as diverse and feeding on vertebrate blood is strongly correlated with high diversification within the Simulioidea + Culicoidea (likely because a reliable source of protein was available to dispersing females since the Triassic from terrestrial vertebrates). Families with blood-feeding females have larger numbers of species than do those without this behaviour. Each family in the Simulioidea + Culicoidea have specialized larval habitats or specialized habits, largely in aquatic habitats where Chironomidae are either not, or are marginally present, suggesting a level of competitive exclusion by the Chironomidae. © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | Brown B.V.,Entomology Section
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting onsite, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to gauge microhabitat diversity within such systems. Our model appears to be the first to provide a protocol that can realistically be expected to provide a portrayal of the true species diversity of a megadiverse order of insects in the tropics. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | Grafe T.U.,University of Brunei Darussalam
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The Corethrella Coquillett of Borneo are described and interpreted, based primarily on material from Brunei Darussalam and a few locations in the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah. The eleven species include three previously named (one newly discovered in Borneo) and eight newly named species. The following new species are attributed to Borkent & Grafe: C. lutea, C. tigrina, C. gilva, C. nanoantennalis, C. mitra and C. bipigmenta. Two new species, C. bicincta and C. unizona are attributed to Borkent, Grafe & Miyagi. Of the eleven Bornean species, 10 are recorded from Brunei Darussalam and eight of these are also known from at least Sarawak. This distribution of species as well as comparison of species collected directly from calling frogs with those collected with frog-call traps (some with modified sound) indicate that diversity is not as high as in Central America (the only other tropical area intensely sampled). Surveys of aquatic habitats show that Corethrella are absent from phytotelmata (water bodies held by plants) in Borneo, other than C. calathicola Edwards which is present in some species of Nepenthes and a species most closely related to a relatively derived group of Neotropical species occupying treeholes (C. calathicola likely dispersed from the Neotropical Region). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, other than C. calathicola, species are members of an early lineage called the drakensbergensis species group (n = 6), is the sister group of a large assemblage of Old and New World species (n = 1) or cannot be placed phylogenetically (probably because of lack of immatures and males) (n = 3). Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press. Source

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