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Jorge B.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | Ojala-Barbour R.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia | Year: 2016

In this study we present the results of inventory efforts of non-volant mammals in Sangay National Park (SNP), one of the least studied regions of Ecuador. We conducted inventories at 9 locations between December 2010 and June 2015 along a gradient of elevations between 1.300 and 3.650 m. To document the presence of non-volant mammals we used capture techniques (Sherman, Tomahawk, and pitfall traps) and direct and indirect detection techniques (track and sign surveys, interviews). The trap effort consisted of 5.730 trap/nights. We detected 86 species in the study area of which rodents were the most diverse group with 36 species (41.8%). The small mammals Chilomys instans, Neusticomys vossi, Ichthyomys cf. stolzmanni, Thomasomys fumeus, Dactilomys dactylinus and Echimys saturnus, the marsupial Marmosa rubra were detected in the SNP for the first time. The shrew-opossum Caenolestes sangay, shrew Cryptotis montivaga and rodents Phyllotis haggardi, Thomasomys fumeus, T. hutsoni, T. cf silvestris, Rhipidomys sp. nov., y Cavia patzelti are endemic species that speak to the biogeographic importance of SNP. Our results with additions from other published studies indicate the presence of 103 species of non-volant mammal, positioning it as the most diverse natural area in the Andes of Ecuador, and as the second most diverse of the tropical Andes. © 2016, Universidade de Sao Paulo. All rights reserved.

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | Brown B.V.,Entomology Section
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting onsite, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to gauge microhabitat diversity within such systems. Our model appears to be the first to provide a protocol that can realistically be expected to provide a portrayal of the true species diversity of a megadiverse order of insects in the tropics. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Sipman H.J.M.,Botanischer Garten and Botanisches Museum Berlin Dahlem | Lucking R.,Field Museum | Aptroot A.,ABL Herbarium | Chaves J.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | And 3 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

In a continuation of our biotic inventory of lichenized fungi in Costa Rica and adjacent areas, we present a treatment of the thelotremoid Graphidaceae, that is the genera and species formerly included in Thelotremataceae. A total of 186 species in 23 genera are reported for Costa Rica, plus an additional 30 taxa for adjacent areas (El Salvador, Nicaragua, Panama) that are expected to occur in Costa Rica. This is the highest number of thelotremoid Graphidaceae reported for any country in the world thus far, followed by Australia (173 species), Sri Lanka (130 species), and Panama (110 species). Together with our previous treatment of the genus Graphis, a total of 293 species of Graphidaceae have now been reported for Costa Rica in revised monographic works, with revisions of larger genera such as Phaeographis still pending, suggesting that the total number of Graphidaceae in Costa Rica is over 400. In the present monograph, the following genus and 40 species taxa are described as new to science: Enigmotrema Lücking gen. nov., Acanthotrema bicellularis Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., A. kalbii Lücking, spec. nov., Chapsa defecta Lücking, spec. nov., C. defectosorediata Lücking, spec. nov., C. farinosa Lücking & Sipman, spec. nov., C. perdissuta Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., C. sublilacina var. cyanea Lücking, spec. nov., C. thallotrema Lücking & N. Salazar, spec. nov., Clandestinotrema analorenae Lücking, spec. nov., Enigmotrema rubrum Lücking, spec. nov., Gyrotrema aurantiacum Sipman, Lücking & Chaves, spec. nov., G. papillatum Lücking, spec. nov., Leucodecton album Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., Myriotrema aggregans Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., M. clandestinoides Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., M. classicum Lücking, spec. nov., M. endoflavescens Hale ex Lücking, spec. nov., M. frondosolucens Lücking & Aptroot, spec. nov., Ocellularia albobullata Lücking, Sipman & Grube, spec. nov., O. cocosensis Lücking & Chaves, spec. nov., O. flavoperforata Lücking, spec. nov., O. gerardii Sipman, spec. nov., O. globifera Kalb & Lücking, spec. nov., O. inspersata Kalb & Lücking, spec. nov., O. inspersula Lücking & Aptroot, spec. nov., O. isohypocrellina Lücking & Kalb, spec. nov., O. laevigatula Kalb & Lücking, spec. nov., O. laeviusculoides Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., O. praestantoides Sipman, spec. nov., O. pseudopyrenuloides Lücking, spec. nov., O. psorbarroensis Sipman, spec. nov., O. subcarassensis Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., O. subpyrenuloides Lücking, spec. nov., O. supergracilis Kalb & Lücking, spec. nov., O. terrabensis Kalb & Lücking, spec. nov., O. zamorana Sipman, Lücking & Chaves, spec. nov., Thelotrema gomezianum Lücking, spec. nov., T. submyriocarpum Lücking, spec. nov., T. wilsonii Sipman & Lücking, spec. nov., and Wirthiotrema duplomarginatum Lücking, Mangold & Lumbsch, spec. nov. In addition, the following 19 new combinations are proposed: Ampliotrema dactylizum (Hale) Sipman, Lücking & Grube, comb. nov. [bas.: Ocellularia dactyliza Hale], A. panamense (Hale) Sipman & Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Leptotrema panamense Hale], C. discoides (Stirt.) Lücking, comb. nov. [Graphis discoides Stirt.], C. esslingeri (Hale) Sipman, comb. nov. [bas.: Ocellularia esslingeri Hale], C. hiata (Hale) Sipman, comb. nov. [bas.: Thelotrema hiatum Hale], C. pseudoschizostoma (Hale) Sipman, comb. nov. [bas.: Ocellularia pseudoschizostoma Hale], C. referta (Hale) Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Ocellularia referta Hale], C. stellata (Hale) Sipman, comb. nov. [bas.: Leptotrema stellatum Hale], Fibrillithecis pachystoma (Nyl.) Sipman, comb. nov. [bas.: Thelotrema pachystomum Nyl.], Leucodecton bisporum (Nyl.) Sipman & Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Thelotrema bisporum Nyl.], L. dactyliferum (Hale) Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Ocellularia dactylifera Hale], L. sordidescens (Fée) Lücking & Sipman, comb. nov. [bas.: Trypethelium sordidescens Fée], Ocellularia carassensis (Vain.) Sipman, comb. nov [bas.: Thelotrema carassense Vain.]., O. maxima (Hale) Lumbsch & Mangold, comb. nov. [bas.: Thelotrema maximum Hale], R. vulcani (Hale) Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Phaeotrema vulcani Hale], Stegobolus anamorphoides (Nyl.) Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Thelotrema anamorphoides Nyl.], Stegobolus lankaensis (Hale) Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Ocellularia lankaensis Hale], Thelotrema jugale (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Ocellularia jugalis Müll. Arg.], and Wirthiotrema desquamans (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, comb. nov. [bas.: Anthracothecium desquamans Müll. Arg.]. All species are described and discussed in detail and illustrated by photographic plates, and keys are provided to genera and species. © 2012 Magnolia Press.

Hernandez-Triana L.M.,University of Guelph | Prosser S.W.,University of Guelph | Rodriguez-Perez M.A.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Chaverri L.G.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2014

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of various primers for the purpose of DNA barcoding old, pinned museum specimens of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). We analysed 271 pinned specimens representing two genera and at least 36 species. Due to the age of our material, we targeted overlapping DNA fragments ranging in size from 94 to 407 bp. We were able to recover valid sequences from 215 specimens, of which 18% had 500- to 658-bp barcodes, 36% had 201- to 499-bp barcodes and 46% had 65- to 200-bp barcodes. Our study demonstrates the importance of choosing suitable primers when dealing with older specimens and shows that even very short sequences can be diagnostically informative provided that an appropriate gene region is used. Our study also highlights the lack of knowledge surrounding blackfly taxonomy, and we briefly discuss the need for further phylogenetic studies in this socioeconomically important family of insects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A world catalog of extant and fossil Chaoboridae provides full type information, distribution of each species, references to keys, references to latest descriptions of each species, and summaries of bionomic information. There are 51 extant species in six genera and 41 fossil species (2 unplaced) in 19 genera, two of which are extant. Chaoborus lanei (Belkin, Heinemann & Page) is a new synonym of C. braziliensis (Theobald) and C. annulatus Cook is a new synonym of C. festivus Dyar & Shannon. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A world catalog of extant and fossil frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) provides full type information, known life stages, and distribution of each species. There are 105 extant and seven fossil species of Corethrellidae but unnamed species are known from Costa Rica, Colombia and Madagascar. New information on types and other important specimens are provided. © 2014 Magnolia Press .

The pupae of species in each of the 45 genera of Ceratopogonidae known in this stage are diagnosed and described. A standard set of terms is provided, with a glossary, for all pertinent structures of the pupal stage within a context of other Culicomorpha. The variety of terms provided by previous authors are synonymized. Some pupal structures are directly related to developing adult structures and these are discussed. A key to the genera (and to the subgenera of Forcipomyia Meigen) allows for their identification. Pupation and pupal behaviour is summarized. A table of all previous descriptions of each stage of the immatures (egg, larva, pupa) is provided, showing that 13% of all validly named extant Ceratopogonidae are known as pupae. This study examined 45% of these species. All species known as fossil pupae are discussed. A phylogenetic analysis based primarily on pupal characters confirms the relationships between the subfamilies as well as the relationships between the genera in Leptoconopinae, Forcipomyiinae and Dasyheleinae. The question of the monophyly of the Culicoidini remains unresolved. Results confirm the paraphyly of the Ceratopogonini and, for the first time, the Sphaeromiini sensu lato, which is divided into Hebetulini (new tribe), Johannsenomyiini Crampton (new status) and Sphaeromiini sensu novum. Sphaeromiini sensu novum includes Sphaeromias Curtis, Leehelea Debenham, Homohelea Kieffer and Xenohelea Kieffer and forms the sister group of the Palpomyiini. Other genera in Sphaeromiini sensu lato not known as pupae are discussed. The genus Mallochohelea Wirth is shown to be polyphyletic and one group of species is therefore recognized as members of the new genus Anebomyia (type species = Mallochohelea atripes Wirth). A number of species previously placed in Stilobezzia Kieffer are shown to belong to Schizonyxhelea Clastrier. Study of the type species of the monotypic genus Nemoromyia Liu and Yu showed it to be a member of the Palpomyia distincta species group and the generic name is therefore a new junior synonym of Palpomyia. Examination of pupae showed that the following species were misplaced and are now in other genera as follows: Schizonyxhelea brevicostalis (Das Gupta & Wirth), 1968: 28 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Schizonyxhelea bulla (Thomsen), 1935: 289 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Schizonyxhelea caribe (Lane & Forattini), 1958: 208 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Schizonyxhelea diminuta (Lane & Forattini), 1958: 209 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Schizonyxhelea obscura (Lane & Forattini), 1958: 216 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Schizonyxhelea panamensis (Lane & Forattini), 1958: 218 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Schizonyxhelea thomsenae (Wirth), 1953: 83 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Schizonyxhelea scutata (Lane & Forattini), 1961: 92 (Stilobezzia) new combination, Pellucidomyia geari (de Meillon & Wirth), 1981: 547 (Macropeza) new combination, Dibezzia prominens (Johannsen) 1932: 435 (Johannsenomyia) new combination, Nilobezzia theileri (de Meillon & Wirth, 1981: 552) (Sphaeromias) new combination, Anebomyia atripes (Wirth, 1962: 281) (Mallochohelea) new combination, Anebomyia fluminea (de Meillon & Wirth), 1981: 550 (Mallochohelea) new combination, Anebomyia siricis (de Meillon), 1961: 50 (Sphaeromias) new combination, Anebomyia texensis (Wirth), 1962: 283 (Mallochohelea) new combination, Anebomyia yunnana (Yu & Zou), in Yu et al. 2005: 1503 (Mallochohelea) new combination, Bezzia goezii (Schrank), 1803: 72 (Tipula) new combination (also a nomen nudum), Palpomyia nemorosa (Liu & Yu), 1991: 26 (Nemoromyia) new combination. Bezzia xanthogaster (Kieffer), 1919: 130 (Probezzia) is a junior homonym of Probezzia xanthogaster (Kieffer), 1917: 329 (Bezzia) and is here given the new name Bezzia gilvigaster Borkent. The fossil genus Paraculicoides Pierce, 1966: 94 and its type species Paraculicoides rouseae Pierce, 1966: 94 are removed from the Ceratopogonidae and likely belong in the Psychodidae. © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The pupae of each of the families of the Culicomorpha are described and, for the first time, their structures homologized. A glossary provides a standard set of terms to be applied to each structure, including a common chaetotaxy. A cladistic analysis incorporates information from each life stage, including a number of new features discovered from the pupal stage, to provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis, as well as indicating autapomorphies for each family. Analysis included states for one egg, 21 larval, 33 pupal, and 37 adult characters. The Chironomidae is the sister group of all remaining Culicomorpha, the Ceratopogonidae is the sister group of Thaumaleidae + Simuliidae and these three are newly recognized as members of the re-defined superfamily Simulioidea. The superfamily Culicoidea are the sister group of the Simulioidea and include, as previous work has already demonstrated, the Dixidae as the sister group of Corethrellidae + Chaoboridae + Culicidae. Corethrellidae is the sister group of Chaoboridae + Culicidae. The superfamily Chironomoidea now includes only Chironomidae. Analysis of the fossil record shows that the Chironomidae (and the Culicomorpha) originated in the Triassic and both Simulioidea and Culicoidea were present by 176 million years ago in the Jurassic. Phylogenetic patterns are used to interpret bionomic features such as differences in the nature of blood-feeding by adult females, daytime or nighttime feeding by adult females, and occurrence of immature stages in aquatic habitats. Chironomidae do not feed on blood as adults and have likely diversified by invading virtually all aquatic habitats as larvae. Its sister group is more than twice as diverse and feeding on vertebrate blood is strongly correlated with high diversification within the Simulioidea + Culicoidea (likely because a reliable source of protein was available to dispersing females since the Triassic from terrestrial vertebrates). Families with blood-feeding females have larger numbers of species than do those without this behaviour. Each family in the Simulioidea + Culicoidea have specialized larval habitats or specialized habits, largely in aquatic habitats where Chironomidae are either not, or are marginally present, suggesting a level of competitive exclusion by the Chironomidae. © 2012 Magnolia Press.

A synopsis and nomenclatural revision of the Apocynaceae s. str. (Apocynoideae and Rauvolfioideae) from Chile is here presented. Lectotypes are designated for Echites heterophyllus, Echites ptarmicus, and Skytanthus acutus. A key, descriptions, geographical distribution data in Chile, and illustrations for the native species are included.

Borkent A.,Instituto Nacional Of Biodiversidad | Grafe T.U.,University of Brunei Darussalam
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The Corethrella Coquillett of Borneo are described and interpreted, based primarily on material from Brunei Darussalam and a few locations in the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah. The eleven species include three previously named (one newly discovered in Borneo) and eight newly named species. The following new species are attributed to Borkent & Grafe: C. lutea, C. tigrina, C. gilva, C. nanoantennalis, C. mitra and C. bipigmenta. Two new species, C. bicincta and C. unizona are attributed to Borkent, Grafe & Miyagi. Of the eleven Bornean species, 10 are recorded from Brunei Darussalam and eight of these are also known from at least Sarawak. This distribution of species as well as comparison of species collected directly from calling frogs with those collected with frog-call traps (some with modified sound) indicate that diversity is not as high as in Central America (the only other tropical area intensely sampled). Surveys of aquatic habitats show that Corethrella are absent from phytotelmata (water bodies held by plants) in Borneo, other than C. calathicola Edwards which is present in some species of Nepenthes and a species most closely related to a relatively derived group of Neotropical species occupying treeholes (C. calathicola likely dispersed from the Neotropical Region). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, other than C. calathicola, species are members of an early lineage called the drakensbergensis species group (n = 6), is the sister group of a large assemblage of Old and New World species (n = 1) or cannot be placed phylogenetically (probably because of lack of immatures and males) (n = 3). Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

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