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Carnero A.M.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Mejia C.R.,Asociacion Medica de Investigacion y Servicios en Salud | Garcia P.J.,Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2012

Objective To examine the shape (functional form) of the association between the rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and preterm birth and its subtypes. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National reference obstetric centre in Lima, Peru. Population Pregnant women who delivered singleton babies during the period 2006-2009, resident in Lima, and beginning prenatal care at ≤12 weeks of gestation (n = 8964). Methods Data were collected from the centre database. The main analyses consisted of logistic regression with fractional polynomial modelling. Main outcome measures Preterm birth and its subtypes. Results Preterm birth occurred in 12.2% of women, being mostly idiopathic (85.7%). The rate of gestational weight gain was independently associated with preterm birth, and the shape of this association varied by pre-pregnancy BMI. In women who were underweight, the association was linear (per 0.1 kg/week increase) and protective (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-1.00). In women of normal weight or who were overweight, the association was U-shaped: the odds of delivering preterm increased exponentially with rates <0.10 or >0.66 kg/week, and <0.04 or >0.50 kg/week, respectively. In women who were obese, the association was linear, but non-significant (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.95-1.06). The association described for preterm birth closely resembled that of idiopathic preterm birth, although the latter was stronger. The rate of gestational weight gain was not associated with indicated preterm birth or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. Conclusions In Peruvian pregnant women starting prenatal care at a;circ12 weeks of gestation, the rate of gestational weight gain is independently associated with preterm birth, mainly because of its association with idiopathic preterm birth, and the shape of both associations varies by pre-pregnancy BMI. © 2012 RCOG. Source


Laveriano W.R.V.,Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal | Redondo C.E.N.,National Major San Marcos University
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: To examine obstetric outcomes in the second birth of women who had undergone a previous cesarean delivery. METHODS: This was a large hospital-based retrospective cohort study. We included pregnant women who had a previous delivery (vaginal or cesarean) attending their second birth from 2001 to 2009. Main inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancies and delivery between a gestation of 24 and 41 weeks. Two cohorts were selected, being women with a previous cesarean delivery (n=7,215) and those with a vaginal one (n=23,720). Both groups were compared and logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounding variables. The obstetric outcomes included uterine rupture, placenta previa, and placental-related complications such as placental abruption, preeclampsia, and spontaneous preterm delivery. RESULTS: Women with previous cesarean delivery were more likely to have adverse outcomes such as uterine rupture (OR=12.4, 95%CI 6.8-22.3), placental abruption (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-2.1), preeclampsia (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.2-1.6), and spontaneous preterm delivery (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with previous cesarean section have adverse obstetric outcomes in the subsequent pregnancy, including uterine rupture, and placental-related disorders such as preeclampsia, spontaneous preterm delivery, and placental abruption. Source


Cabeza J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Cabeza J.,Center for Research and Education | Garcia P.J.,Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University | Segura E.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 6 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2015

Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis, which is asymptomatic in most women, causes significant adverse effects for pregnant women and neonates. No programmes conduct antenatal screening in Latin America. We determined chlamydia prevalence, feasibility and acceptability of chlamydia screening, and adherence to treatment in pregnant women in two urban public hospitals in Lima, Peru. Methods: We offered chlamydia screening using self-collected vaginal swabs to pregnant women ≥16 years of age during their first antenatal visit. Chlamydia-infected women were contacted within 14 days and asked to bring partners for counselling and directly observed therapy with oral azithromycin. Unaccompanied women received counselling, directly observed therapy, and azithromycin to take to partners. Test of cure was performed ≥3 weeks after treatment. Results: We approached 640 women for the study and enrolled 600 (93.8%). Median age was 27.3 years (range 16-47), median lifetime partners 2.3 (range 1-50), and median gestational age 26.1 weeks (range 4-41). Chlamydia prevalence was 10% (95% CI 7.7% to 12.7%). Of 60 infected patients, 59 (98%) were treated with one dose of azithromycin. Fifty-two of 59 (88%) returned for test of cure, all of whom were treated successfully, with 46 (86%) achieving negative test of cure with one dose of azithromycin, and 6 (12%) after retreatment with a second dose. Conclusions: C. trachomatis screening and treatment in pregnancy was feasible and highly acceptable in two urban hospitals in Peru. Chlamydia prevalence was high. Clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening, and treatment of pregnant women to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in low-resource settings, are warranted. Source


A retrospective analysis is performed in three successive periods between the years 1996 and 2009, in order to evaluate the impact of the implementation of three national guidelines for the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. 275 births were included in 13 years. Significant statistical differences were found in the percentage of HIV cases in the children exposed to the virus between the three periods: 15% during the period in which only zidovudine (AZT) was administered to the pregnant woman, 6.4% during the second period (administration of AZT to the pregnant woman not fulfilling HAART initiation criteria and HAART to those fulfilling criteria for this treatment), and 4% during the third period in which HAART was applied to all pregnant women with HIV infection. 95% of pregnant women ended their pregnancy by cesarean section and the 100% of children received infant formula. Changes made in national guidelines have produced a positive impact in the decrease of HIV infected children in the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal in Peru. Source


Ventura W.,Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2011

Objective: To determine the association of amniotic fluid sludge with impending preterm delivery in women in preterm labor with intact membranes. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study in women at 22-34 weeks' gestation in preterm labor with intact fetal membranes between February 2008 and May 2009. 16 women with amniotic sludge were identified. Each case of amniotic sludge was matched with 3 randomly selected controls. The primary outcome was delivery within 48 h of examination. Results: Mean cervical length was shorter in women with sludge than women without sludge (20.5 ± 9.0 vs. 27.9 ± 6.9 mm, p = 0.0016). There was a significant difference in the mean ultrasound-to-delivery interval in women with and without sludge (21.7 vs. 49.4 days, p = 0.006). Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that amniotic fluid sludge is a strong independent predictor of impending preterm delivery within 48 h (OR 11.2, 95% CI 1.2-125.9), 7 days (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-17.3) and 14 days (OR 7.5, 95% CI 1.8-30.4). Conclusions: Amniotic fluid sludge on ultrasound scan is associated with impending preterm delivery in women in preterm labor with intact membranes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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