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Pereiro P.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Dios S.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Boltana S.,University of Stirling | Boltana S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

DNA vaccines encoding the viral G glycoprotein show the most successful protection capability against fish rhabdoviruses. Nowadays, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective response remain still poorly understood. With the aim of shedding light on the protection conferred by the DNA vaccines based in the G glycoprotein of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) we have used a specific microarray highly enriched in antiviral sequences to carry out the transcriptomic study associated to VHSV DNA vaccination/infection. The differential gene expression pattern in response to empty plasmid (pMCV1.4) and DNA vaccine (pMCV1.4-G860) intramuscular administration with regard to non-stimulated turbot was analyzed in head kidney at 8, 24 and 72 hours post-vaccination. Moreover, the effect of VHSV infection one month after immunization was also analyzed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated fish at the same time points. Genes implicated in the Toll-like receptor signalling pathway, IFN inducible/regulatory proteins, numerous sequences implicated in apoptosis and cytotoxic pathways, MHC class I antigens, as well as complement and coagulation cascades among others were analyzed in the different experimental groups. Fish receiving the pMCV1.4-G860 vaccine showed transcriptomic patterns very different to the ones observed in pMCV1.4-injected turbot after 72 h. On the other hand, VHSV challenge in vaccinated and non-vaccinated turbot induced a highly different response at the transcriptome level, indicating a very relevant role of the acquired immunity in vaccinated fish able to alter the typical innate immune response profile observed in non-vaccinated individuals. This exhaustive transcriptome study will serve as a complete overview for a better understanding of the crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune response in fish after viral infection/vaccination. Moreover, it provides interesting clues about molecules with a potential use as vaccine adjuvants, antiviral treatments or markers for vaccine efficiency monitoring. © 2014 Pereiro et al. Source

Estepa A.,University Miguel Hernandez | Coll J.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias INIA
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Since adaptive features such as memory were discovered in mammalian innate immunity, interest in the immunological status of primitive vertebrates after infections has grown. In this context, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio), a primitive vertebrate species suited to molecular and genetic studies to explore transcriptional memories of the immune system in longterm survivors of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus infections. Immune-gene targeted microarrays designed in-house, multipath genes, gene set enrichment, and leading-edge analysis, reveal unexpected consistent correlations between the viral-survivor phenotype and several innate multigene families. Thus, here we describe in survivors of infections the upregulation of the multigene family of proteasome subunit macropains, zebrafish-specific novel gene sets, mitogen activated protein kinases, and epidermal growth factor. We also describe the downregulation of the multigene families of c-reactive proteins, myxovirusinduced proteins and novel immunoglobulin-type receptors. The strength of those immunological memories was reflected by the exceptional similarity of the transcriptional profiles of survivors before and after re-infection compared with primary infected fish. On the other hand, the high levels of neutralizing antibodies in the blood plasma of survivors contrasted with the depletion of transcripts specific for most cell types present in lymphoid organs. Therefore, long-term survivors maintained unexpected molecular/cellular memories of previous viral encounters by modulating the expression levels of innate multigene families as well as having specific adaptive antibodies. The implications of the so-called "trained immunity" for future research in this field are also discussed. © 2015 Estepa, Coll. Source

Encinas P.A.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias INIA | Coll J.M.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias INIA
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Induction of neutralizing antibodies and protection by oral vaccination with DNA-alginates of rainbow trout . Oncorhynchus mykiss against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was recently reported . [1]. Because orally induced immune response transcript gene profiles had not been described yet neither in fish, nor after IPNV vaccination, we studied them in head kidney (an immune response internal organ) and a vaccine entry tissue (pyloric ceca). By using an oligo microarray enriched in immune-related genes validated by RTqPCR, the number of increased transcripts in head kidney was higher than in pyloric ceca while the number of decreased transcripts was higher in pyloric ceca than in head kidney. Confirming previous reports on intramuscular DNA vaccination or viral infection, . mx genes increased their transcription in head kidney. Other transcript responses such as those corresponding to interferons, their receptors and induced proteins (. n=. 91 genes), VHSV-induced genes (. n=. 25), macrophage-related genes (. n=. 125), complement component genes (. n=. 176), toll-like receptors (. n=. 31), tumor necrosis factors (. n=. 32), chemokines and their receptors (. n=. 121), interleukines and their receptors (. n=. 119), antimicrobial peptides (. n=. 59), and cluster differentiation antigens (. n=. 58) showed a contrasting and often complementary behavior when head kidney and pyloric ceca were compared. For instance, classical complement component transcripts increased in head kidney while only alternative pathway transcripts increased in pyloric ceca, different β-defensins increased in head kidney but remained constant in pyloric ceca. The identification of new gene markers on head kidney/pyloric ceca could be used to follow up and/or to improve immunity during fish oral vaccination. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Encinas P.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias INIA | Garcia-Valtanen P.,University Miguel Hernandez | Chinchilla B.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias INIA | Gomez-Casado E.,Instituto Nacional Investigaciones Agrarias INIA | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Spring viremia carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus seasonally affecting warm-water cyprinid fish farming causing high impacts in worldwide economy. Because of the lack of effective preventive treatments, the identification of multipath genes involved in SVCV infection might be an alternative to explore the possibilities of using drugs for seasonal prevention of this fish disease. Because the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a cyprinid susceptible to SVCV and their genetics and genome sequence are well advanced, it has been chosen as a model for SVCV infections. We have used newly designed pathway-targeted microarrays 3-4-fold enriched for immune/infection functional-relevant probes by using zebrafish orthologous to human genes from selected pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The comparative analysis of differential expression of genes through 20 pathways in 2-day exposed or 30-day survivors of SVCV infection allowed the identification of 16 multipath genes common to more than 6 pathways. In addition, receptors (Toll-like, B-cell, T-cell, RIG1-like) as well as viral RNA infection pathways were identified as the most important human-like pathways targeted by SVCV infection. Furthermore, by using bioinformatic tools to compare the promoter sequences corresponding to up and downregulated multipath gene groups, we identified putative common transcription factors which might be controlling such responses in a coordinated manner. Possible drug candidates to be tested in fish, can be identified now through search of data bases among those associated with the human orthologous to the zebrafish multipath genes. With the use of pathway-targeted microarrays, we identified some of the most important genes and transcription factors which might be implicated in viral shutoff and/or host survival responses after SVCV infection. These results could contribute to develop novel drug-based prevention methods and consolidate the zebrafish/SVCV as a model for vertebrate viral diseases. © 2013 Encinas et al. Source

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